Ayodhya Kaanda - Sarga 35



In this Sarga, Sumantra, the chief minister of King Daṡaratha, lashes at Kaikēyee for being such an obtuse person. He warns that everyone would leave the city and follow Rāma, if he goes to Vana.


He reminds her of her mother’s stupidity and urges her not to follow the example of her mother. He warns her of the damnation that she would face from people if Rāma leaves to the Vana.


But all he said ends in vain, with Kaikēyee standing unmoved.
2.35.1-4 ததோ நிர்தூய ஸஹஸா ஸிரோ நிஸ்ஸ்வஸ்ய சாஸக்ருத் ।
பாணௌ பாணிம் விநிஷ்பிஷ்ய தந்தாந் கடகடாப்ய ச ॥
லோசநே கோபஸம்ரக்தே வர்ணம் பூர்வோசிதம் ஜஹத் ।
கோபாபிபூதஸ்ஸஹஸா ஸந்தாபமஸுபம் கத: ॥
மந: ஸமீக்ஷமாணஸ்ச ஸூதோ தஸரதஸ்ய ஸ: ।
கம்பயந்நிவ கைகேய்யா ஹ்ருதயம் வாக்சரைஸ்ஸிதை: ॥
வாக்யவஜ்ரைரநுபமைர்நிர்பிந்தந்நிவ சாஸுபை: ।
கைகேய்யா ஸ்ஸர்வமர்மாணி ஸுமந்த்ர: ப்ரத்யபாஷத ॥
tatō nirdhūya sahasā ṡirō niṡṡvasya cāsakṛt ।
pāṇau pāṇiṃ viniṣpiṣya dantān kaṭakaṭāpya ca ॥
lōcanē kōpasaṃraktē varṇaṃ pūrvōcitaṃ jahat ।
kōpābhibhūtassahasā santāpamaṡubhaṃ gataḥ ॥
manaḥ samīkṣamāṇaṡca sūtō daṡarathasya saḥ ।
kampayanniva kaikēyyā hṛdayaṃ vākcharaiṡṡitaiḥ ॥
vākyavajrairanupamairnirbhindanniva cāṡubhaiḥ ।
kaikēyyā ssarvamarmāṇi sumantraḥ pratyabhāṣata ॥
Thereupon, Sumantra, the charioteer,
shaking his head violently, heaving great sighs,
pressing his palms against one another and grinding his teeth,
his eyes blood-shot and his face changing color
because of overpowering indignation and a
veil of sadness that suddenly fell upon him,
read the mind of Daṡaratha and
raved at Kaikēyee, as if he was going to
shake her heart from the bottom,
and tear her vitals with his unparalleled and
diamond sharp shafts of words
delivered at lightning speed. The dynamics of the events here should be self evident. But drawing a parallel of it in the contemporary world may make it more vivid. So, let me offer a parallel here.


Think of a mid-sized business. The CEO, who is in his late forties, falls seriously ill. A junior executive, named K, takes personal care of the CEO and does everything needed during that critical time and helps the CEO come out of the clutches of death. The grateful CEO offers K something in reward. But K, being the humble and good natured person he is, doesn’t seek anything in return. But the CEO insists saying, “OK, ask me anything you want any time, I shall only be pleased to give you”. Twenty years passes by and this whole thing recedes in every one’s memory.


The CEO is now in his late sixties. He has been grooming one of the executives, named R, to take the reins and he makes a public announcement of it. R is an excellent, capable and respected gentleman. He proved his abilities more than once over the past decade. He is loved by everyone in the company. He commands respect and regard not only among the rank and file of the company, but also among the partners and all other stakeholders. K is also happy with the decision.


However, K’s friend, M, is not happy. He tells K, “You have enjoyed a great relationship with the CEO thus far. But you won’t enjoy the same relationship or privileges with the new CEO. It is in your interest to make B, your favorite, as the next CEO”. K says, “This is absurd. I like R as well!”. But M presses on saying, “When the CEO was sick twenty years ago, he made a promise to you that he will give anything you want. Here is your chance!”. With enough persuasion, K is convinced and insists with the CEO that B should be the next CEO. Further K insists that R should be fired from the company (just as Steve Jobs was forced out of Apple) so that he will not be a threat to B.


The boat is rocked. Everything is in turmoil. No one in the company or among the stakeholders likes this. No one is happy about the flipping of the decision by the CEO. No one is happy that R is not going to be the next CEO. In fact, many people want to leave the company and join R in whatever he does (just as many of the Apple employees quit Apple to follow Steve Jobs and join his next company).


What are the choices of the CEO now? A) To honor his word and pass on the reins to B and fire R, putting everything in turmoil and even risking the future of the company to some extent. B) To dishonor his own word given to K, and do what everyone likes, by passing on the reins to R. C) Wishing that R takes the reins in a coup with his supporters.






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Ṡlōkas 2.35.9-10:


Sumantra says that it is customary that the eldest son inherits the kingdom.


In Ṡlōka 2.8.24, Manthara claims that kings install either the eldest or one of the other more qualified sons.

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Custom offers all kinds of examples. One can always pull an example that suits one’s purpose. What one pulls as an example, determines one’s character.




2.35.5-6a யஸ்யாஸ்தவ பதிஸ்த்யக்தோ ராஜா தஸரத: ஸ்வயம் ।
பர்தா ஸர்வஸ்ய ஜகத: ஸ்தாவரஸ்ய சரஸ்ய ச ।
ந ஹ்யகார்யதமம் கிஞ்சித்தவ தேவீஹ வித்யதே ॥
yasyāstava patistyaktō rājā daṡarathaḥ svayam ।
bhartā sarvasya jagataḥ sthāvarasya carasya ca ।
na hyakāryatamaṃ kińcittava dēvīha vidyatē ॥
O lady! Huh! You are able to
forsake even your husband Daṡaratha, the king,
lord of everything that is mobile and immobile;
what else could there be that you will not do?
2.35.6b-7 பதிக்நீம் த்வாமஹம் மந்யே குலக்நீமபி சாந்தத: ।
யந்மஹேந்த்ரமிவாஜய்யம் துஷ்ப்ரகம்ப்யமிவாசலம் ।
மஹோததிமிவாக்ஷோப்யம் ஸந்தாபயஸி கர்மபி: ॥
patighnīṃ tvāmahaṃ manyē kulaghnīmapi cāntataḥ ।
yanmahēndramivājayyaṃ duṣprakampyamivācalam ।
mahōdadhimivākṣōbhyaṃ santāpayasi karmabhiḥ ॥
I cannot but think of you as the destroyer
of your husband and, in the end, the entire family!
You have made him miserable, the one who is otherwise
invincible like the great Indra,
unshakable like a mountain, and
imperturbable like a ocean.
2.35.8 மாவமம்ஸ்தா தஸரதம் பர்தாரம் வரதம் பதிம் ।
பர்துரிச்சா ஹி நாரீணாம் புத்ரகோட்யா விஸிஷ்யதே ॥
māvamaṃsthā daṡarathaṃ bhartāraṃ varadaṃ patim ।
bharturicchā hi nārīṇāṃ putrakōṭyā viṡiṣyatē ॥
Do not insult Daṡaratha, your husband, who
takes good care of you and gives everything you ask for.
Women consider the good cheer of a husband
to be more valuable than that of a Crore of sons.
2.35.9 யதாவயோ ஹி ராஜ்யாநி ப்ராப்நுவந்தி ந்ருபக்ஷயே ।
இக்ஷ்வாகுகுலநாதேऽஸ்மிம் ஸ்தல்லோபயிதுமிச்சஸி ॥
yathāvayō hi rājyāni prāpnuvanti nṛpakṣayē ।
ikṣvākukulanāthē'smiṃ stallōpayitumicchasi ॥
It is customary to see the sons inheriting
the kingdoms as per their seniority,
at the end of the rule of a king.
You want to stop that from happening
for the lord of Ikshwāku dynasty!
2.35.10 ராஜா பவது தே புத்ரோ பரதஸ்ஸாஸ்து மேதிநீம் ।
வயம் தத்ர கமிஷ்யாமோ ராமோ யத்ர கமிஷ்யதி ॥
rājā bhavatu tē putrō bharataṡṡāstu mēdinīm ।
vayaṃ tatra gamiṣyāmō rāmō yatra gamiṣyati ॥
May Bharata, your son, become the king and rule the earth!
But we will all go wherever Rāma goes!
2.35.11 ந ஹி தே விஷயே கஸ்சித் ர்ப்ராஹ்மணோ வஸ்துமர்ஹதி ।
தாத்ருஸம் த்வமமர்யாதமத்ய கர்ம சிகீர்ஷஸி ॥
na hi tē viṣayē kaṡcid rbrāhmaṇō vastumarhati ।
tādṛṡaṃ tvamamaryādamadya karma cikīrṣasi ॥
What you are doing is so much against custom that
no Brāhmaṇa would like to live in your country!
2.35.12-13 நூநம் ஸர்வே கமிஷ்யாமோ மார்கம் ராமநிஷேவிதம் ।
த்யக்தாயா பாந்தவை: ஸர்வைர்ப்ராஹ்மணை: ஸாதுபி: ஸதா ॥
கா ப்ரீதீ ராஜ்யலாபேந தவ தேவி பவிஷ்யதி ।
தாத்ருஸம் த்வமமர்யாதம் கர்ம கர்தும் சிகீர்ஷஸி ॥
nūnaṃ sarvē gamiṣyāmō mārgaṃ rāmaniṣēvitam ।
tyaktāyā bāndhavaiḥ sarvairbrāhmaṇaiḥ sādhubhiḥ sadā ॥
kā prītī rājyalābhēna tava dēvi bhaviṣyati ।
tādṛṡaṃ tvamamaryādaṃ karma kartuṃ cikīrṣasi ॥
All of us, for sure, will go wherever Rāma goes.
What pleasure would you derive out of
acting in such an unconventional manner, O queen,
that makes all the Brāhmaṇas, kith and kin
and virtuous men desert you forever?
2.35.14-15 ஆஸ்சர்யமிவ பஸ்யாமி யஸ்யாஸ்தே வ்ருத்தமீத்ருஸம் ।
ஆசரந்த்யா ந விவ்ருதா ஸத்யோ பவதி மேதிநீ ॥
மஹாப்ரஹ்மர்ஷிஸ்ருஷ்டா: வா ஜ்வலந்தோ பீமதர்ஸநா: ।
திக்வாக்தண்டா ந ஹிம்ஸந்தி ராமப்ரவ்ராஜநே ஸ்திதாம் ॥
āṡcaryamiva paṡyāmi yasyāstē vṛttamīdṛṡam ।
ācarantyā na vivṛtā sadyō bhavati mēdinī ॥
mahābrahmarṣisṛṣṭāḥ vā jvalantō bhīmadarṡanāḥ ।
dhigvāgdaṇḍā na hiṃsanti rāmapravrājanē sthitām ॥
It is indeed amazing that
the earth has not broken into pieces
and the blazing, baleful and rebuking words of
Brahmarshis have not destroyed you
for your act of insisting on Rāma’s exile!
2.35.16 ஆம்ரம் சித்வா குடாரேண நிம்பம் பரிசரேத்து ய: ।
யஸ்சைநம் பயஸா ஸிஞ்சேந்நைவாஸ்ய மதுரோ பவேத் ॥
āmraṃ chitvā kuṭhārēṇa nimbaṃ paricarēttu yaḥ ।
yaṡcainaṃ payasā sińcēnnaivāsya madhurō bhavēt ॥
No one can find sweetness
by axing the mango tree and nursing a neem tree
with all care, showering milk on it.
2.35.17 அபிஜாத்யம் ஹி தே மந்யே யதா மாதுஸ்ததைவ ச ।
ந ஹி நிம்பாத்ஸ்ரவேத் க்ஷைத்ரம் லோகே நிகதிதம் வச: ॥
abhijātyaṃ hi tē manyē yathā mātustathaiva ca ।
na hi nimbātsravēt kṣaidraṃ lōkē nigaditaṃ vacaḥ ॥
I think that you must have inherited
this by birth from your mother.
After all, is it not said that
honey does not flow from a neem tree?
2.35.18-19 தவ மாதுரஸத்க்ராஹம் வித்ம: பூர்வம் யதாஸ்ருதம் ।
பிதுஸ்தே வரத: கஸ்சித்ததௌ வரமநுத்தமம் ॥
ஸர்வபூதருதம் தஸ்மாத்ஸம்ஜஜ்ஞே வஸுதாதிப: ।
தேந திர்யக்கதாநாம் ச பூதாநாம் விதிதம் வச: ॥
tava māturasadgrāhaṃ vidmaḥ pūrvaṃ yathāṡrutam ।
pitustē varadaḥ kaṡciddadau varamanuttamam ॥
sarvabhūtarutaṃ tasmātsaṃjajńē vasudhādhipaḥ ।
tēna tiryaggatānāṃ ca bhūtānāṃ viditaṃ vacaḥ ॥
We have all heard about the stubbornness
of your mother in the past.
A certain benefactor had granted
your father a special ability.
Because of that, that lord of the peoples
could interpret the sounds made by every living being.
He could understand the talk of every passing being.
2.35.20 ததோ ஜ்ரும்பஸ்ய ஸயநே விருதாத்பூரிவர்சஸ: ।
பிதுஸ்தே விதிதோ பாவ ஸ்ஸ தத்ர பஹுதாऽஹஸத் ॥
tatō jṛmbhasya ṡayanē virutādbhūrivarcasaḥ ।
pitustē viditō bhāva ssa tatra bahudhā'hasat ॥
Then your brilliant father understood
what an ant near by the bed had said.
And he could not stop laughing.
2.35.21 தத்ர தே ஜநநீ க்ருத்தா ம்ருத்யுபாஸமபீப்ஸதீ ।
ஹாஸம் தே ந்ருபதே! ஸௌம்ய ஜிஜ்ஞாஸாமீதி சாப்ரவீத் ॥
tatra tē jananī kruddhā mṛtyupāṡamabhīpsatī ।
hāsaṃ tē nṛpatē! saumya jijńāsāmīti cābravīt ॥
Then your mother, longing for the noose of Death,
became angry, thinking that he was making fun of her
and asked him: “What makes you laugh, King, dear, I wish to know!”
2.35.22 ந்ருபஸ்சோவாச தாம் தேவீம் தேவி! ஸம்ஸாமி தே யதி ।
ததோ மே மரணம் ஸத்யோ பவிஷ்யதி ந ஸம்ஸய: ॥
nṛpaṡcōvāca tāṃ dēvīṃ dēvi! ṡaṃsāmi tē yadi ।
tatō mē maraṇaṃ sadyō bhaviṣyati na saṃṡayaḥ ॥
Then the king replied to that lady,
“O Queen, if I tell you the reason,
I will meet with certain death!”
2.35.23 மாதா தே பிதரம் தேவி! தத: கேகயமப்ரவீத் ।
ஸம்ஸ மே ஜீவ வா மா வா ந மாமபஹஸிஷ்யஸி ॥
mātā tē pitaraṃ dēvi! tataḥ kēkayamabravīt ।
ṡaṃsa mē jīva vā mā vā na māmapahasiṣyasi ॥
O Queen, your mother then said to
your father, the king of Kēkaya,
“Do not make fun of me. Tell me,
regardless of whether you live or die!”
2.35.24 ப்ரியயா ச ததோக்தஸ்ஸந் கேகய: ப்ருதிவீபதி: ।
தஸ்மை தம் வரதாயார்தம் கதயாமாஸ தத்த்வத: ॥
priyayā ca tathōktassan kēkayaḥ pṛthivīpatiḥ ।
tasmai taṃ varadāyārthaṃ kathayāmāsa tattvataḥ ॥
Upon that imploring of his dear one,
the lord of the Kēkaya land,
said everything as it happened to the benefactor.
2.35.25 தத: ஸ்ஸ வரத: ஸாதுராஜாநம் ப்ரத்யபாஷத ।
ம்ரியதாம் த்வம்ஸதாம் வேயம் மா க்ருதாஸ்த்வம் மஹீபதே! ॥
tataḥ ssa varadaḥ sādhurājānaṃ pratyabhāṣata ।
mriyatāṃ dhvaṃsatāṃ vēyaṃ mā kṛthāstvaṃ mahīpatē! ॥
That good natured benefactor then advised the king:
“O king, let her die or perish, do not do that!”
2.35.26 ஸ தச்ச்ருத்வா வசஸ்தஸ்ய ப்ரஸந்நமநஸோ ந்ருப: ।
மாதரம் தே நிரஸ்யாஸு விஜஹார குபேரவத் ॥
sa tacchrutvā vacastasya prasannamanasō nṛpaḥ ।
mātaraṃ tē nirasyāṡu vijahāra kubēravat ॥
Following the words of that good natured benefactor,
discounting off your mother,
he (the king) lived on like Kubēra.
2.35.27 ததா த்வமபி ராஜாநம் துர்ஜநாசரிதே பதி ।
அஸத்க்ராஹமிமம் மோஹாத்குருஷே பாபதர்ஸிநி ॥
tathā tvamapi rājānaṃ durjanācaritē pathi ।
asadgrāhamimaṃ mōhātkuruṣē pāpadarṡini ॥
You too, walking in the ways of the wicked,
are being stubborn out of stupidity,
committed to an evil course.
2.35.28 ஸத்யஸ்சாத்ய ப்ரவாதோऽயம் லௌகிக: ப்ரதிபாதி மா ।
பித்ருந் ஸமநுஜாயந்தே நரா மாதரமங்கநா: ॥
satyaṡcādya pravādō'yaṃ laukikaḥ pratibhāti mā ।
pitṛn samanujāyantē narā mātaramaṅganāḥ ॥
It seems the adage that sons take after their father
and daughters after their mother, is really true.
2.35.29 நைவம் பவ க்ருஹாணேதம் யதாஹ வஸுதாதிப: ।
பர்துரிச்சாமுபாஸ்வேஹ ஜநஸ்யாஸ்ய கதிர்பவ ॥
naivaṃ bhava gṛhāṇēdaṃ yadāha vasudhādhipaḥ ।
bharturicchāmupāsvēha janasyāsya gatirbhava ॥
Do not conduct yourself like that!
Accept what the lord of the earth has said.
Follow the wish of your husband.
Be the savior of the people.
2.35.30 மா த்வம் ப்ரோத்ஸாஹிதா பாபைர்தேவராஜஸமப்ரபம் ।
பர்தாரம் லோகபர்தாரமஸத்தர்மமுபாததா: ॥
mā tvaṃ prōtsāhitā pāpairdēvarājasamaprabham ।
bhartāraṃ lōkabhartāramasaddharmamupādadhāḥ ॥
Do not, instigated by the wicked,
make your husband, the master of the world and
illustrious like the King of the gods,
act in violation of Dharma.
2.35.31 ந ஹி மித்யா ப்ரதிஜ்ஞாதம் கரிஷ்யதி தவாநக: ।
ஸ்ரீமாந்தஸரதோ ராஜா தேவி! ராஜீவலோசந: ॥
na hi mithyā pratijńātaṃ kariṣyati tavānaghaḥ ।
ṡrīmāndaṡarathō rājā dēvi! rājīvalōcanaḥ ॥
O lady! The faultless and blessed king
Daṡaratha of lotus eyes,
is not going to violate his pledge to you!
2.35.32 ஜ்யேஷ்டோ வதாந்ய: கர்மண்ய: ஸ்வதர்மபரிரக்ஷிதா ।
ரக்ஷிதா ஜீவலோகஸ்ய பலீ ராமோऽபிஷிச்யதாம் ॥
jyēṣṭhō vadānyaḥ karmaṇyaḥ svadharmaparirakṣitā ।
rakṣitā jīvalōkasya balī rāmō'bhiṣicyatām ॥
May Rāma, the eldest of the sons,
the strong, the capable, the generous,
the one who is committed to discharging his responsibilities,
and the protector of all the beings, be consecrated!
2.35.33 பரிவாதோ ஹி தே தேவி! மஹால்லோகே சரிஷ்யதி ।
யதி ராமோ வநம் யாதி விஹாய பிதரம் ந்ருபம் ॥
parivādō hi tē dēvi! mahāllōkē cariṣyati ।
yadi rāmō vanaṃ yāti vihāya pitaraṃ nṛpam ॥
You will face great condemnation in the world,
if Rāma goes to Vana leaving his father, the king!
2.35.34 ஸ ராஜ்யம் ராகவ: பாது பவ த்வம் விகதஜ்வரா ।
ந ஹி தே ராகவாதந்ய: க்ஷம: புரவரே வஸேத் ॥
sa rājyaṃ rāghavaḥ pātu bhava tvaṃ vigatajvarā ।
na hi tē rāghavādanyaḥ kṣamaḥ puravarē vasēt ॥
May such Rāma protect this kingdom.
Give up all your worries.
There is no one else who is more capable
than Rāma in this great city!
2.35.35 ராமே ஹி யௌவராஜ்யஸ்தே ராஜா தஸரதோ வநம் ।
ப்ரவேக்ஷ்யதி மஹேஷ்வாஸ: பூர்வவ்ருத்தமநுஸ்மரந் ॥
rāmē hi yauvarājyasthē rājā daṡarathō vanam ।
pravēkṣyati mahēṣvāsaḥ pūrvavṛttamanusmaran ॥
Once Rāma is consecrated as the crown prince,
king Daṡaratha, the great archer,
will retire to the Vana, following the age-old custom.
2.35.36 இதி ஸாந்த்வைஸ்ச தீக்ஷ்ணைஸ்ச கைகேயீம் ராஜஸம்ஸதி ।
ஸுமந்த்ர: க்ஷோபயாமாஸ பூய ஏவ க்ருதாஜ்ஜலி: ॥
iti sāntvaiṡca tīkṣṇaiṡca kaikēyīṃ rājasaṃsadi ।
sumantraḥ kṣōbhayāmāsa bhūya ēva kṛtājjaliḥ ॥
After thus pleading and berating Kaikēyee
in the presence of the king
in an attempt to shake her,
Sumantra stood there with joined palms.
2.35.37 நைவ ஸா க்ஷுப்யதே தேவீ ந ச ஸ்ம பரிதூயதே ।
ந சாஸ்யா முகவர்ணஸ்ய விக்ரியா லக்ஷ்யதே ததா ॥
naiva sā kṣubhyatē dēvī na ca sma paridūyatē ।
na cāsyā mukhavarṇasya vikriyā lakṣyatē tadā ॥
She was neither shaken, nor worried, nor was there
any change in the expression on her face.
இத்யார்ஷே ஸ்ரீமத்ராமாயணே வால்மீகீயே ஆதிகாவ்யே
அயோத்யாகாண்டே பம்சத்ரிம்ஸஸ்ஸர்க: ॥
ityārṣē ṡrīmadrāmāyaṇē vālmīkīyē ādikāvyē
ayōdhyākāṇḍē paṃcatriṃṡassargaḥ ॥
Thus concludes the thirty fifth Sarga
in Ayōdhyā Kāṇḍa of the glorious Rāmāyaṇa,
the first ever poem of humankind,
composed by Vālmeeki.