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गावो गन्धेन पश्यन्ति वेदै: पश्यन्ति ब्राह्मणा:।
चारै: पश्यन्ति राजान्श्चक्षुर्भ्यामितरे जना: ॥



Cows "see" (recognise /apprehend) through smell*


brahmins through veda**


kings "see" using spies***

Others merely through their two eyes.

* although a cow sees its calf, it makes sure that the calf is its own
after smelling. Same goes for danger (it smells danger quite far off).


** when confronted with an occasion where a brahmin has to know what is
dharma and adharma, he will take recourse to Veda. This is because
पितृदेवमनुष्याणां *वेदश्चक्षुः सनातनम्* (manusmRRti 12.14) which means
that the Veda functions as though it were the eyes of pitRRis, devas and
manuShyas in telling them every moment what to do and what not. i.e. vidhi
and niShedha (just as the eye tells us where to step and where not to).


*** a king cannot be present everywhere in his kingdom and needs to keep a
tab on the happenings through spies.