Purusha Suktam - A Hymn to Lord Rudra
Courtesy: http://hara-hara-mahadev.blogspot.in...udra-also.html
Continues
3)
etāvānasya mahimāto jyāyāṃśca pūruṣaḥ |
pādo.asyaviśvā bhūtāni tripādasyāmṛtaṃ divi ||


etāvān - All that is here seen
asya - is his
mahima - greatness.
ata: - And then, beyond all this
purusha: ca - that Purusha
jyāyān - great.
viśvā bhūtāni - All that was created in this world
pādo - is but one part
asya - of him.
tripād - The other three parts are
divi - in heaven,
amṛtaṃ - where they are eternal.


Meaning:


So mighty is his greatness; yea, greater than this is Puruṣa.
All creatures are one-fourth of him, three-fourths eternal life in heaven.


4)


tripādūrdhva udait puruṣaḥ pādo.asyehābhavat punaḥ |
tato viṣvaṃ vyakrāmat sāśanānaśane abhi ||


tripād - Three parts
puruṣaḥ - of the purusha
udait - rise above,
ūrdhva - above all creation.
pāda: - One part alone
asya - of his
iha - is here
abhavat - manifested
punaḥ - again and again.
tata - From that part did
sāśana - anaSana - beings that eat and eat not,
viṣvaṃ - all the visible world
abhivyakrāmat - did come forth.


Meaning:


Three parts of his are beyond all this all of this, is but a part. Again and again, all that eats,and that eats not appeared from this one part of His.


Commentary:


Lord Rudra is Brahman of Vedas. The word "Brahman" has its root in the word 'Brihat' which means Large or massive. Regarding this, Sri Rudram of Yajurveda(iv.5.5.i) says namo brihate cha ( Salutations to Lord Rudra who is 'Brihat' ie., Brahman). Yajurveda (v. 5. 9. i ) says"The Rudra in the fire, in the waters, in the plants, the Rudra who has entered all beings, to that Rudra be homage"


"Where Skambha(pillar or Linga) generating gave the Ancient World its shape and form, They recognized that single part of Skambha(pillar or Linga) as the Ancient World," (Atharva Veda X:7:26)


"Great, verily, are those Gods who sprang from non-existence into life. Further, men say that that one part of Skambha(linga or pillar) is nonentity". ( Atharva Veda X:7:25)


"How far within the past hath Skambha(Linga/pillar) entered? How much of him hath reached into the future? That one part which he set in thousand places,—how far did Skambha(linga/pillar) penetrate within it?" ( Atharvana veda X:7:9)




So the above verses from Skambha sukta, which describes the Agni Linga form of Shiva, makes it clear that only a part of Lord Shiva is manifested as creation and its beings. Sri Rudram of Yajurveda offers salutations to the universal form of Rudra : vishvarupebhyashcha vo namo ( Salutations to Lord Rudra who assumes universal form or vishvaroopam ) (Yaurveda iv.5.4.f) Rig Veda (2:33:10) also talks aboutRudra's viśvarūpam. So, it is clear that whole Vishwa (ie.,universe) is manifested form Lord Rudra.




5)
tasmād virāḷ ajāyata virājo adhi pūruṣaḥ |
sa jātoatyaricyata paścād bhūmimatho puraḥ ||


tasmād - from that great purusha
virāt - did the shining universe
ajāyata - come forth.
virājo adhi - From that virAt,
pūruṣaḥ - came forth purusha,
sa - He
jāta - was born
ati aricyata - and grew very large, extending
paścād - in front
bhūmi- of the earth
ata: - and then
puraḥ - behind.


Meaning:


From him Virāj was born; again Puruṣa from Virāj was born.
As soon as he was born he spread eastward and westward over the earth.


Commentary :


This verse says that virat was born from Purusha. Virat is the Shining world. It is also called Hiranyagarbha by the Upanishads. The vedascall it by name Prajapati.. This Prajapati is responsible for creation. He is the first being to be born. From Prajapati, the Purusha himself took his birth. As soon as he was born he spread out over the earth in all the directions. ie., he multiplied and new species evolved.


Purusha ---------> Hiranyagarbha --------> purusha.
(Unmanifest) ( Visible universe) ( all living beings)




Svetasvatara Upanishad says :


"He, the omniscient Rudra, the creator of the gods and the bestower of their powers, the support of the universe, He who, in the beginning, gave birth to Hiranyagarbha—may He endow us with clear intellect!" (3:04 svetasvatara upanishad )


"The Supreme Lord Rudra is higher than Virat, beyond Hiranyagarbha. He is vast and is hidden in the bodies of all living beings. By knowing Him who alone pervades the universe, men become immortal "( 3:07 svetasvathara Upanishad)


"Men know Hiranyagarbha as supreme and inexpressible: In the beginning, in the midst of the world, Skambha(pillar/linga) poured (ie., gave birth) that Hiranyagarbha." ( Atharva veda X:7:28)


After giving birth to Hiyanyagarbha, the Unborn Rudra manifested through Hiranyagarbha. actually, Rudra is unborn. he appears throughprajapati. regarding this, Atharvana veda says :


prajā́patiś carati gárbhe antár ádr̥śyamāno bahudhā́ ví jāyate
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ katamáḥ sá ketúḥ ( Athava veda X-8-13)


"Within the womb Prajapati is moving: he, though unseen, is born in sundry places. He with one half engendered all creation. What sign is there to tell us of the other?"


ékacakraṃ vartata ékanemi sahásrākṣaraṃ prá puró ní paścā
ardhéna víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ jajā́na yád asyārdháṃ kvà tád babhūva (Atharva veda X-8-7)


"Up, eastward downward in the west, 'it rolleth, with countless elements, one-wheeled, single-fellied.With half it hath begotten all creation. Where hath the other half become unnoticed?"


utáiṣāṃ pitótá vā putrá eṣām utáiṣāṃ jyeṣṭhá utá vā kaniṣṭháḥ
éko ha devó mánasi práviṣṭaḥ prathamó jātáḥ sá u gárbhe antáḥ (Atarva Veda X-8-28)


"Either the sire or son of these, the eldest or the youngest child.As sole God dwelling in the mind, first born, he still is in the womb."


tváṃ strī́ tváṃ púmān asi tváṃ kumārá utá vā kumārī́
tváṃ jīrṇó daṇḍéna vañcasi tváṃ jātó bhavasi viśvátomukhaḥ (Svetasvatara Upanishad IV-3) *
* same is repeated in Atharva veda , Skhambha Suktam (X-8-27)


"Thou art woman, Thou art man; Thou art youth and maiden too. Thou as an old man totterest along on a staff; it is Thou alone who, when born, assumest diverse forms. "


The same thing is mentioned in Atharva Veda while describing about ascetic form of Lord Shiva (Vratya):


vrā́tya āsīd ī́yamāna evá sá prajā́patiṃ sám airayat || sá prajā́patiḥ suvárṇam ātmánn apaśyat tát prā́janayat || tád ékam abhavat tál lalā́mam abhavat tán mahád abhavat táj jyeṣṭhám abhavat tád bráhmābhavat tát tápo 'bhavat tát satyám abhavat téna prā́jāyata || ( Atharva Veda 15:1:1-3)

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"There was Vratya( Ascetic form of Lord shiva) . He roused Prajapati to action. Prajapati beheld gold in himself and engendered it. That became unique, that became distinguished, that became great, that became excellent, that became Brahman, that became Tapas, that became Truth: through that he was born."


sò 'vardhata sá mahā́n abhavat sá mahādevò 'bhavat || sá devā́nām īśā́ṃ páry ait sá ī́śāno 'bhavat || sá ekavrātyò 'bhavat sá dhánur ā́datta tád evéndradhanúḥ || nī́lam asyodáraṃ lóhitaṃ pr̥ṣṭhám || nī́lenaivā́priyaṃ bhrā́tr̥vyaṃ prórṇoti lóhitena dviṣántaṃ vidhyatī́ti brahmavādíno vadanti || (Atharva Veda 15:1:4-8)


"He grew, he became great, he became Mahadeva.He gained the lordship of the Gods. He became Ishana. He became Eka Vratya. He held a bow, even that Bow of Indra. His belly is dark-blue, his back is red( Nila Lohitam) . With dark-blue he envelops a detested rival, with red he pierces the man who hates him: so the theologians say."


So Atharvana Veda makes it clear that Rudra was there even before Prajapati and It was Rudra who created Prajapati and roused him into action. Later, He himself manifested through Prajapati and spread in all directions in form of in-dweller living beings and gods.




To be Cont'd