Aranya Kaanda - Sarga 33
In this Sarga, Ṡūrpaṇakhā thrashes Rāvaṇa for being indulgent, complacent and not vigilant enough to know about the slaughter of Rākshasas at Janasthāna already through his intelligence agents. Vālmeeki uses the occasion to narrate the evils such as hubris, carelessness, anger, etc., that bring down a king.
3.33.1 தத: ஸூர்பணகா தீநா
ராவணம் லோகராவணம் ।
அமாத்யமத்யே ஸங்க்ருத்தா
பருஷம் வாக்யமப்ரவீத் ॥
tataḥ ṡūrpaṇakhā dīnā
rāvaṇaṃ lōkarāvaṇam ।
amātyamadhyē saṅkruddhā
paruṣaṃ vākyamabravīt ॥
Ṡūrpaṇakhā, woebegone and raging,
said these harsh words
to Rāvaṇa, who was the sorrow of all the worlds,
in the presence of all his ministers.
3.33.2 ப்ரமத்த: காமபோகேஷு
ஸ்வைரவ்ருத்தோ நிரங்குஸ: ।
ஸமுத்பந்நம் பயம் கோரம்
போத்தவ்யம் நாவபுத்யஸே ॥
pramattaḥ kāmabhōgēṣu
svairavṛttō niraṅkuṡaḥ ।
samutpannaṃ bhayaṃ ghōraṃ
bōddhavyaṃ nāvabudhyasē ॥
Living as you please with none to guide you,
indulging in luxuries and pleasures,
you do not see the great danger that has arisen,
which you should have known.
3.33.3 ஸக்தம் க்ராம்யேஷு போகேஷு
காமவ்ருத்தம் மஹீபதிம் ।
லுப்தம் ந பஹுமந்யந்தே
ஸ்மஸாநாக்நிமிவ ப்ரஜா: ॥
saktaṃ grāmyēṣu bhōgēṣu
kāmavṛttaṃ mahīpatim ।
lubdhaṃ na bahumanyantē
ṡmaṡānāgnimiva prajāḥ ॥
People do not give much regard to a ruler
who is selfish, indulges in base luxuries
and goes about as his fancy dictates,
like one would not, to the fire in a cremation ground. Fire is considered very sacred and auspicious in Indian culture. Fire transforms visible into invisible. It transports visible offerings of the humans into the invisible world of Dēvas. Fire, as a flame, dispels darkness. It is a symbol of energy and light. Fire is the key aspect of all Yaj˝as and Hōmas, whether performed by Ṛshis in the Vanas, or in temples at major events, or in homes at the time of weddings and such ceremonies.
The only time fire does not get much respect is when it is seen in the funeral grounds.
3.33.4 ஸ்வயம் கார்யாணி ய: காலே
நாநுதிஷ்டதி பார்திவ: ।
ஸ து வை ஸஹ ராஜ்யேந
தைஸ்ச கார்யைர்விநஸ்யதி ॥
svayaṃ kāryāṇi yaḥ kālē
nānutiṣṭhati pārthivaḥ ।
sa tu vai saha rājyēna
taiṡca kāryairvinaṡyati ॥
The King who does not attend to
his affairs personally in a timely manner,
perishes along with those affairs,
taking down his kingdom also with him.
3.33.5 அயுக்தசாரம் துர்தர்ஸம்
அஸ்வாதீநம் நராதிபம் ।
வர்ஜயந்தி நரா தூராத்
நதீபங்கமிவ த்விபா: ॥
ayuktacāraṃ durdarṡam
asvādhīnaṃ narādhipam ।
varjayanti narā dūrāt
nadīpaṅkamiva dvipāḥ ॥
Like elephants that avoid
being caught in the mud of rivers,
people abandon and stay away from a ruler
who is not in his own control,
is not easy of access and
not well-served by intelligence agents.
3.33.6 யே ந ரக்ஷந்தி விஷயம்
அஸ்வாதீநா நராதிபா: ।
தே ந வ்ருத்த்யா ப்ரகாஸந்தே
கிரயஸ்ஸாகரே யதா ॥
yē na rakṣanti viṣayam
asvādhīnā narādhipāḥ ।
tē na vṛddhyā prakāṡantē
girayassāgarē yathā ॥
Kings who might have prospered otherwise,
but have no control over themselves,
and do not take care of their kingdom
count for nothing,
like mountains submerged in the seas. There is concept in India that one should not travel across a ocean. This must have arisen out of a parallel culture. If people of India were to never venture into oceans, they should have known very little about oceans, much less that there are mountains submerged in it. There is enough folklore in India which speaks about magical kingdoms in islands that can be reached only after crossing seven seas.
3.33.7 ஆத்மவத்பிர்விக்ருஹ்ய த்வம்
தேவகந்தர்வதாநவை: ।
அயுக்தசாரஸ்சபல:
கதம் ராஜா பவிஷ்யஸி ॥
ātmavadbhirvigṛhya tvaṃ
dēvagandharvadānavaiḥ ।
ayuktacāraṡcapalaḥ
kathaṃ rājā bhaviṣyasi ॥
How can you survive as a king,
with fickle mind and lacking intelligence agents,
and all the while antagonizing
the Dēvas, Gandharvas and Dānavas,
who are steady and capable?
3.33.8 த்வந்து பாலஸ்வபாவஸ்ச
புத்திஹீநஸ்ச ராக்ஷஸ ।
ஜ்ஞாதவ்யந்து ந ஜாநீஷே
கதம் ராஜா பவிஷ்யஸி ॥
tvantu bālasvabhāvaṡca
buddhihīnaṡca rākṣasa ।
j˝ātavyantu na jānīṣē
kathaṃ rājā bhaviṣyasi ॥
How can you survive, O Rākshasa, as a king,
with your immature nature, lacking wisdom,
and not knowing what should be known?
3.33.9 யேஷாம் சாரஸ்ச கோஸஸ்ச
நயஸ்ச ஜயதாம் வர ।
அஸ்வாதீநா நரேந்த்ராணாம்
ப்ராக்ருதைஸ்தே ஜநைஸ்ஸமா: ॥
yēṣāṃ cāraṡca kōṡaṡca
nayaṡca jayatāṃ vara ।
asvādhīnā narēndrāṇāṃ
prākṛtaistē janaissamāḥ ॥
O foremost of the victorious ones!
The rulers who do not have control
over their exchequer, spies and strategy
are no different from commoners.
3.33.10 யஸ்மாத்பஸ்யந்தி தூரஸ்தாந்
ஸர்வாநர்தாந்நராதிபா: ।
சாரேண தஸ்மாதுச்யந்தே
ராஜாநோ தீர்கசக்ஷுஷ: ॥
yasmātpaṡyanti dūrasthān
sarvānarthānnarādhipāḥ ।
cārēṇa tasmāducyantē
rājānō dīrghacakṣuṣaḥ ॥
The rulers of people are reputed as farsighted
because they see, by gathering intelligence,
everything that matters even when it lies far away.
3.33.11 அயுக்தசாரம் மந்யே த்வாம்
ப்ராக்ருதைஸ்ஸசிவைர்வ்ருதம் ।
ஸ்வஜநம் து ஜநஸ்தாநே
ஹதம் யோ நாவபுத்த்யஸே ॥
ayuktacāraṃ manyē tvāṃ
prākṛtaissacivairvṛtam ।
svajanaṃ tu janasthānē
hataṃ yō nāvabuddhyasē ॥
It is clear that you do not have good agents
and are surrounded by ordinary ministers,
because you are not even aware of
the destruction of your own people in Janasthāna.
3.33.12 சதுர்தஸ ஸஹஸ்ராணி
ரக்ஷஸாம் க்ரூரகர்மணாம் ।
ஹதாந்யேகேந ராமேண
கரஸ்ச ஸஹதூஷண: ॥
caturdaṡa sahasrāṇi
rakṣasāṃ krūrakarmaṇām ।
hatānyēkēna rāmēṇa
kharaṡca sahadūṣaṇaḥ ॥
Fourteen thousand Rākshasas
capable of dreadful acts
including Khara and Dūshaṇa
were killed by just one man, Rāma.
3.33.13 ருஷீணாமபயம் தத்தம்
க்ருதக்ஷேமாஸ்ச தண்டகா: ।
தர்ஷிதம் ச ஜநஸ்தாநம்
ராமேணாக்லிஷ்டகர்மணா ॥
ṛṣīṇāmabhayaṃ dattaṃ
kṛtakṣēmāṡca daṇḍakāḥ ।
dharṣitaṃ ca janasthānaṃ
rāmēṇākliṣṭakarmaṇā ॥
Ṛshis have been freed from fear,
Daṇḍaka has been made safe;
and Janasthāna has been challenged
by Rāma who does things with extreme ease.
3.33.14 த்வந்து லுப்த: ப்ரமத்தஸ்ச
பராதீநஸ்ச ராவண ।
விஷயே ஸ்வே ஸமுத்பந்நம்
பயம் யோ நாவபுத்யஸே ॥
tvantu lubdaḥ pramattaṡca
parādhīnaṡca rāvaṇa ।
viṣayē svē samutpannaṃ
bhayaṃ yō nāvabudhyasē ॥
O Rāvaṇa! And as for you,
you are indulgent and in deep slumber,
depending on others, not being aware of
the danger that arose in your realm!
3.33.15 தீக்ஷ்ணமல்பப்ரதாதாரம்
ப்ரமத்தம் கர்விதம் ஸடம் ।
வ்யஸநே ஸர்வபூதாநி
நாபிதாவந்தி பார்திவம் ॥
tīkṣṇamalpapradātāraṃ
pramattaṃ garvitaṃ ṡaṭham ।
vyasanē sarvabhūtāni
nābhidhāvanti pārthivam ॥
No one rushes to (the rescue) of a ruler
who is indulgent, arrogant, scheming,
abrasive and scant in rewarding,
should he fall in trouble. A good portion of bosses in the corporate world fit this description.
3.33.16 அதிமாநிநமக்ராஹ்யம்
ஆத்மஸம்பாவிதம் நரம் ।
க்ரோதிநம் வ்யஸநே ஹந்தி
ஸ்வஜநோऽபி மஹீபதிம் ॥
atimāninamagrāhyam
ātmasambhāvitaṃ naram ।
krōdhinaṃ vyasanē hanti
svajanō'pi mahīpatim ॥
His own people would kill
a king when he is in trouble,
if he is unapproachable, has super ego,
is excessively prideful, and given easily to anger.
3.33.17 நாநுதிஷ்டதி கார்யாணி
பயேஷு ந பிபேதி ச ।
க்ஷிப்ரம் ராஜ்யாச்யுதோ தீந:
த்ர்ருணைஸ்துல்யோ பவிஷ்யதி ॥
nānutiṣṭhati kāryāṇi
bhayēṣu na bibhēti ca ।
kṣipraṃ rājyācyutō dīnaḥ
trṛṇaistulyō bhaviṣyati ॥
He who does not act when he should and
does not fear when there is cause for fear,
will, in no time, become pathetic,
dislodged from his kingdom and
disregarded like a worthless blade of grass.
3.33.18 ஸுஷ்கை: காஷ்டைர்பவேத்கார்யம்
லோஷ்டைரபி ச பாம்ஸுபி: ।
ந து ஸ்தாநாத்பரிப்ரஷ்டை:
கார்யம் ஸ்யாத்வஸுதாதிபை: ॥
ṡuṣkaiḥ kāṣṭhairbhavētkāryaṃ
lōṣṭairapi ca pāṃsubhiḥ ।
na tu sthānātparibhraṣṭaiḥ
kāryaṃ syādvasudhādhipaiḥ ॥
Even dried wood, lumps of clay and specs of dust
might be of some use, but not
the kings who have fallen from their position.
3.33.19 அபபுக்தம் யதா வாஸ:
ஸ்ரஜோ வா ம்ருதிதா யதா ।
ஏவம் ராஜ்யாத்பரிப்ரஷ்ட:
ஸமர்தோऽபி நிரர்தக: ॥
apabhuktaṃ yathā vāsaḥ
srajō vā mṛditā yathā ।
ēvaṃ rājyātparibhraṣṭaḥ
samarthō'pi nirarthakaḥ ॥
Like a cloth that is already used,
and a garland that has been crumpled,
the man who has lost his kingdom
is of no use, however capable may he be.
3.33.20 அப்ரமத்தஸ்ச யோ ராஜா
ஸர்வஜ்ஞோ விஜிதேந்த்ரிய: ।
க்ருதஜ்ஞோ தர்மஸீலஸ்ச
ஸ ராஜா திஷ்டதே சிரம் ॥
apramattaṡca yō rājā
sarvaj˝ō vijitēndriyaḥ ।
kṛtaj˝ō dharmaṡīlaṡca
sa rājā tiṣṭhatē ciram ॥
Only that king who is vigilant,
is abreast of everything (that matters),
has mastered his senses, adheres to Dharma
and bears a sense of gratitude
will reign for long.
3.33.21 நயநாப்யாம் ப்ரஸுப்தோऽபி
ஜாகர்தி நயசக்ஷுஷா ।
த்யக்தக்ரோதோऽப்ரமாதஸ்ச
ஸ ராஜா பூஜ்யதே ஜநை: ॥
nayanābhyāṃ prasuptō'pi
jāgarti nayacakṣuṣā ।
tyaktakrōdhō'pramādaṡca
sa rājā pūjyatē janaiḥ ॥
The king who abjures anger and is ever vigilant
being well awake through his strategy,
even when his eyes are closed in sleep,
is regarded highly by the people.
3.33.22 த்வம் து ராவண துர்புத்தி:
குணைரேதைர்விவர்ஜித: ।
யஸ்ய தேऽவிதிதஸ்சாரை
ரக்ஷஸாம் ஸுமஹாந்வத: ॥
tvaṃ tu rāvaṇa durbuddhiḥ
guṇairētairvivarjitaḥ ।
yasya tē'viditaṡcārai
rakṣasāṃ sumahānvadhaḥ ॥
But you, Rāvaṇa, are an imbecile,
devoid of all such qualities,
for you did not know through your agents,
of the great slaughter of the Rākshasas.
3.33.23 பராவமந்தா விஷயேஷு ஸங்கதோ
ந தேஸகாலப்ரவிபாகதத்வவித் ।
அயுக்தபுத்திர்குணதோஷநிஸ்சயே
விபந்நராஜ்யோ நசிராத்விபத்ஸ்யஸே ॥
parāvamantā viṣayēṣu saṅgatō
na dēṡakālapravibhāgatatvavit ।
ayuktabuddhirguṇadōṣaniṡcayē
vipannarājyō nacirādvipatsyasē ॥
Disparaging others, addicted to pleasures,
with no sense of what to do when and where and
with no discernment between good and bad,
you will lose your kingdom and be in trouble,
in the not too distant future.
3.33.24 இதி ஸ்வதோஷாந் பரிகீர்திதாம்ஸ்தயா
ஸமீக்ஷ்ய புத்த்யா க்ஷணதாசரேஸ்வர: ।
தநேந தர்பேண பலேந சாந்விதோ
விசிந்தயாமாஸ சிரம் ஸ ராவண: ॥
iti svadōṣān parikīrtitāṃstayā
samīkṣya buddhyā kṣaṇadācarēṡvaraḥ ।
dhanēna darpēṇa balēna cānvitō
vicintayāmāsa ciraṃ sa rāvaṇaḥ ॥
Rāvaṇa, the Lord of the Rākshasas,
even though swollen with riches, pride and strength
pondered for a while,
about his shortcomings thus vocalized by her in full.
இத்யார்ஷே வால்மீகீயே
ஸ்ரீமத்ராமாயணே ஆதிகாவ்யே
அரண்யகாண்டே த்ரயஸ்த்ரிம்ஸஸ்ஸர்க: ॥
ityārṣē vālmīkīyē
ṡrīmadrāmāyaṇē ādikāvyē
araṇyakāṇḍē trayastriṃṡassargaḥ ॥
Thus concludes the thirty third Sarga
in Araṇya Kāṇḍa of the glorious Rāmāyaṇa,
the first ever poem of humankind,
composed by Maharshi Vālmeeki.

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