Divya Nama Bhajan
RADHE KRISHNA 05-08-2009

Email to(R.Narasimhan)


(By Achala Bhakthan)
From the
Paddhathi Kramam given in the Sampradaaya Bhajan
section, we notice that though the entire
sampradaaya is included in the above Paddhathi
Krama, we normally refer to Paddathi (Basic) as
the Paddhathi Bhajan and Divyanaamam onwards as
Special Bhajan Paddhathis. This is because
Poojopachaaram, Poorna Ashtapadi, Deepa
Pradakshinam, Unchavrutthi, Kalyaanams,
Vasanthothsavam etc. necessarily are preceded
by Thodaya Mangalam, Guru Keerthans and
Daasarvaal Krithis (including Ashtapadi and
Tharangam ).
Hence this has stayed as PADDATHI BHAJAN.color=brown>. Dhyaana Bhajan may be performed
without the Paddathi Bhajan
Importance of PADDHATHI
BHAJAN (Basic):
Why Paddhathi and what
is the importance of performing Bhajan in
the given order? Every activity is preceded
by a planning of the objective, how to
approach the goal, the method, the steps to
go through, etc. There is a discipline to be
followed in each of such activities. Even in
serving food or the method of intake, there
is a step by step process - what to serve
first, what next and what last etc. The taste
of food, if all the dishes are mixed together
and taken, is different from tasting each dish
separately. We enjoy more by tasting each dish
separately. Are we not following these in our
daily life? What do we do when we want some
great personality to visit us? First we praise
him and invite him to our house. He may not
agree as we are strangers. So we go through
someone best known to both of us, who prevails
upon him to accept the invitation. When he
comes, we receive him with pomp and show and
make him comfortable. After washing his feet,
we make him seated and host him by offering
fruits and other eatables and something to
drink or eat. Then we mix with him and chat,
be friendly with him, enjoying his company.
We pray to him for his blessings/seek from
him what we want. Then we make him rest for
a while and wake him up and then he leaves.
When we seek someone's favour, we have to
go through these formalities to please him
first.Similarly, in Bhajan Sampradaaya, we
have an order of performance for proper
First we think of God
by praising his qualities and gunaas and
do vandanam (Thodaya Mangalam).
To get him with us, we seek the grace and
help of Guru for which we sing in praise
of Guru (Guru Keerthanam). Guru preaches
the attainments of Daasarvaals like Jayadeva,
Naaraayana Theertha, Badraachala Ramadaas
etc. etc. who have got the grace of God
through Naama Sankeerthanam and we follow
their method by singing their keerthans
(Daasarvaal Keerthanams).
This is because, it is easy to approach
God through the footsteps of Gurus and
bhakthas. Then, we invite him to come to us
and on his appearance, we perform Pooja and
Archana (Pooja Paddhathi and Upachaara
Keerthanam). We cannot stand the site of
formless, nameless, omnipotent and
omniscient God and we need Divya Chakshus
to visualise the vision of God. Our Guru
teaches us as to how to prepare for it. He
prepares us to do meditation on
Swaroopa Dhyaana (seeing God in different
roopaas). As we fondle a child by bedecking
it with different costumes and make-ups and
enjoy its varied appearances, so we venture
to get God's vision in the form of Ganapathy,
Saraswathi, Subramanya, Ayyappa, Siva,
Parvathy, Rama, Krishna, Vittal,
Govinda, Hanumaan etc. etc. by singing in
praise of them (Dhyaanaam). This is because
Swaroopa Dhyaana is easier compared to Aroopa
Dhyaanam (formless). Paddhathi Bhajan thus is
the first stepping stone for
spiritual evolution through Bhakthi Marga.
Paddhathi Bhajan can
be equated to Swaroopa Dhyaanam of the
Vedantic method, since through
Paddhathi Bhajan, we are meditating on
various forms of God (Swaroopa Dhyaanam)
through songs, which give us more
opportunity to go near the
God. Paddhathi Bhajan, if performed well,
with the right bent of mind, following
the given order, will lead to perfection
and higher heights in Bhakthi marga.
While dealing with the
Attavanai topics, I have dealt with the
paddhathi & songs. Hence, to avoid
duplication, I am not dealing with any
songs or the method of
performing Paddhathi Bhajan here.



Email to(R.Narasimhan)


Gist of By Achala Bhakthan)


Gist of Raadha Maadhava

Ashtapadi is the divya
Kaavyam: "GEETHA GOVINDAM", which describes the
Raadha Maadhava Sallapam with Sringaara Rasam. I use
the word Ashtapadi everywhere since this has come to
stay among the Bhagavathaas and is in that term easily.
The Bhagawatham in 10th skandam describes Raasa
Kreeda, where at one palce, it only states that Sri Krishna
enjoys with one particular Gopi in seclusion to all other
Gopis and this Gopi becomes too Egoistic and to bring
her ego down Sri Krishna goes away from her and
mingles with all other Gopis. Then this Gopi gets angry
and blames Krishna for such acts.Her sakkhi acifies her
and unites them through her advice to both.
The Bhaagavatham never states about Raadhika. No
other puranam explains about Raadhika, except the
Brahma Vaivartha Puraanam. In the 10th Skandam,
there is a description about Golokam where the Lord
in the form of Maadhava ever exists with Raadhika
Devi as his consort.Due to a curse from Sudhaama,
one of the body guards of Sri Maadhava (Sri Krishna),
Sri Raadhika Devi had to take birth in the Bhoolokam
as a girl. Sri Krishna assures Raadhika that He would
take birth as Krishna in Bhoolokam, where she would
take birth as the girl child of Vrushabhanu Maharaaja
and then both can enjoy the life in Bhoolokam. This is
the basic story of Raadha Krishna Jananam.
The poorva slokaas of
Ashtapadi paddhathi starting with
"Meghair Medhuram Ambaram"is
nothing but the Kalyaana Choornikai in a summary form.
describes the scenerey where Nanda Gopa, carrying the
child Krishna to the carttle's gracing field, finds the sky
becoming dark with clouds and the arrival of thunder
storm and rain. He feels that the child may get afraid
and searches for someone to fetch him home. There
comes Sri Raadhika Devi, who is handed over with
the child when Nanda Gopa asks her to take Krishna
Home. She fondly hugs the child and goes. Sri
Krishna Bhagawan thought it the right time to
remind Radhika Devi about her status and wishes to
show her their earlier abode, i.e. Golokam. He brings
before her the scenery of Golokam which reminds
her of her original nature and all of a sudden in
ectasy she tries to hug the Lord (seen in Golakam)
with both her hands open wide and she rushes
towards Madhava (Krishna in Bhoolakam).At that
time, the child disappears and Krishna thought that
before accepting Radhika, the usual Vivaaha Karma
should be performed and as the eagerness of
Raadhika cannot be controlled he orders Sri Brahma
Deva to perform the marriage, which he does with
Pravaram, Lagnashtakam, Kanyaka Daanam,
Panigrahanam, Laja Homam etc. Raadha Kalyaanam
is said to have taken place in Brahma Muhurtham,
that around 3.30 a.m. or so. This is the meaning of
this slokam which is elaboratel stated in Raadha
Kalyaanam as Choornikai. This shows that
performing Poorna Ashtapadi is equal to performing
Raadha Kalyaanam.
The theme in Ashtapadi
and the Author:
The Ashtapadi songs are
called "GEETHA GOVINDA MAHAA KAAVYAM",color=brown>
which is said to be the ancient form of Sringaara
Kaavyams. These are full of Sringaara
Rasapravaaham. In short, These songs describe
the celestial love between Raadhika Devi and
Krishna, The Egoistic nature of Raadhika, Her
Anger towards Krishna, Her viraha thaapam
(sorrow in separation), reunion and their
Sallapam. This Kaavyam is composed by Sri
Jayadeva Swamigal, from self experience of the Godly principle within. Sri
Jayadeva was said to be living in the 12th century in the village "Kindu
Bilwam" near Puri Jagannath in the present Orissa State, born to the
saahtwic brahmin couple known as Sri Narayana Sashtri (also called
Bhojadevan) and Smt.Kamala Devi (also called Radha Devi). In his early age
Sri Jayadeva lost his parents and was staying in a Kutir in the forest,
composing songs and singing them with music in praise of Sri Krishna. Sri
Jayadeva is said to be the avathar of Sri Puri
Padmaavathi was born to
a devoute Brahmin Deva Sarma, who,during his prayers longed for a child
and promised to present the child after growth to the Lord Jagannath
Himself. When she became of marriageable age, Sri Deva Sarma, in
fulfilment of his promise, offered her to Lord Jagannath, who ordered the
chief priest in his dreams to take the child to Sri Jayadeva and get her
married to him. Lord Jagannath informed the priest that Jayadeva is none
other than Himself. Thus, the girl was left at the Kutir of Sri Jayadeva,
against his wish, who refused to enter into Gruhasthaasrama. Due to the
stead fastness of Padmaavathi & her Bhakthi and service to him, he
considered it as God's will and ultimately married her in the normal way.
Sri Jayadeva enacted the scenes of this Kaavyam while composing it along
with Padmavathi dancing to the tunes. Thus, this Kaavyam is a living
monument of Srigaara Rasa Bhaava.
The summary of contents
of Ashtapadi:
Like Bhagawatham
describing Krishna Leela and Raasakreeda in 12 Skandams, Ashtapadi also
has 12 Sargams, containing 24 Ashtapadi songs. Each song comprises mostly
of Eight stanzaas with the exception ofone or two Ashtapadis which are
less or more than 8 stanzaas. (This kaavyam was placed before the Raja
Sadas and this has been named as Ashtap0adi by the Pandits and Raja. The
contents of Sargams, in short, are:
1. Picturisation of
Dasaavathaarams of Krishna and the prabhaavams of the Lord in various
avathaars are described in priase of Lord in the first two Ashtapadis. The
third & fourth Ashtapadis are the description of Vasantha Kaala
Varnanai & Raasa Leela of Krishna with other Gopis in Brindaavan
described by the Sakkhi.(1 to 4 Ashtapadis- 1st Sargam
called: "Samoda Damodarah")
2. Raadhikaa's grief as
Krishna is enjoying with other Gopis, ignoring her totally and getting
herself annoyed, being too possessive of Krishna and staying alone in the
kutir made of plants and requesting Sakkhi to go and explain to Krishna
Her plight and to fetch him to Her to accept Her. (5th and 6th Ashtapadi -
2nd Sargam called: "Aklesa Kesavah"). color=brown>
3. Krishna's
realisation of his mistake of ignoring Raadhika & spending his time
with other Gopis.(7th Ashtapadi-3rd Sargam called:
"Mugddha Madhusudhanah").
4. Sakkhi explaining
the Viraha Thaapam suffered by Raadhika and pleading to God to please
Raadhika by His presence before Her.(8th & 9th Ashtapadi - color=blue>4th Sargam called: "Snigddha Madhusudhanah").
5. Sri Krishna asking
Sakkhi to pacify Raadhika & fetch Her to Him. (10th & 11th
Ashtapadis - 5th Sargam called: "Abhisaarikaa Varnane
Saakaamksha Pundareekakshah").
6. Sakkhi explaining
the aweful condition of Raadhika due to Viraha Thaapam and Her inability
to move & requesting Lord to go to Her.(12th Ashtapadi - 6th Sargam
called: "Sothkkhantta Vaikunttah").
7. Shri Raadhika's
plight of suffering due to Viraha Thaapam and started blabbering like a
mad person in imagination of Krishna being in company of other
Gopis.(13th, 14th, 15th and 16th Ashtapadis - 7th Sargam called: color=blue> "Vipralabhdha Varnane Naagareeka Naaraayana").
8. In the dawn Sri
Krishna arriving at Raadhika's Kutir and Raadhika, in anger, drives away
Krishna saying 'YAAHI MAADHAVA".(17th Ashtapadi - 8th Sargam called: color=blue>"Kkhanditha Varnane Vilaksha Lakshmipadi:").
9. Sakkhi, criticising
about Raadhika's angry mood which mades Krishna disappear. The Sakkhi
advices Her to behave well when He comes next. Raadhika realises Her
faults and repents.(18th Ashtapadi - 9th Sargam called:color=blue>"Kalahaantharitha Varnane Mugddha Mukundah").
10. Sri Krishna
reappearing before Raadhika and pacifying Her with His sweet words like:
you are my Jeeva, you are my ornament, you are my Pearl etc. and pleads
for Her forgiveness and goes away.(19th Ashtapadi - 10th Sargam called
: "Radha Varnane Mugddha Maadhavah").
11. Sakkhi, pointing
out to Raadhika about the kindness of Krishna and His behaviour and that
She should now go to Krishna's place and unite with Him & please Him.
Raadhika visits Krishna Mandir(where Krishna was waiting to receive Her)
and gets thrilled in his darshan. (20th, 21st and 22nd Ashtapadis - 11th
Sargam called: "Saanada Govindah").
12. Both enter the
house & become united.Krishna does alankaaram to Raadhika, whose
dresses were crumbled and displaced during the Union.Thus ends the
Sringaara Rasa Kaavyam.(23rd and 24th Ashtapadis - 12th Sargam called:
"Swadheena Barthrukaa Varnane Supreetha
The sanctity of
It is said that the
Ashtapadi Kaavyam of Sri Jayadeva has been blessed by the Lord Himself,
about which the 19th Ashtapadi vouchsafes. In this 19th Ashtapadi, in the
seventh stanza, he wrote as if Lord has suffered from Kaamam (passion)
& only Raadhikaa's feet kept on His head will bring down the Thaapam
and the Lord pleading to Raadhika to place Her feet onto His head.
Suddently, Jayadeva realises his mistake and feels how he could think of a
lady's feet being kept on the Lord. He repented and erased the stanza and
tried to re-write it. Having no ideas to pour he thought he could do later
and gave the Kaavyam to Padmavathi to keep it safe and that he would go
for oilbath. After some time, he came and called to Padmaavathi to bring
the Kaavyam as he had some good idea and wanted to fill up where he left
the song. With the oil soaked hand he wrote some lines and gave back the
Kaavyam to her and went for bath. After meals while taking rest, he opned
the Kaavyam and saw, to his surprise, the seventh stanza having got filled
up with what ever he originally wrote. He got wild and scolded Padvaavathy
for being negligent, for someone else has come and written what he did not
want to write. Padmaavathy in sheer surprise, narrated what happened when
he went for bath. Jayadeva realised that God has come in Jayadeva's form
and filled up the unfinished stanza with the same idea that occured to him
originally. This means that Lord himself has accepted the stanza, and
finally the Kaavyam itself.After this, the final Charanam of some
Ashtapadis are all ending with "Jayathu Padmaavathi Ramana Jayadeva Kavi"
because Jayadeva considered her as the blessed Bhaktha of the Lord &
he wanted to be known through her, since Padmaavathy got the Darshana of
Lord and not Jayadeva. Thus, this Ashtapadi has its acceptance by the Lord
Himself. The 22nd Ashtapadi is said to be the Kalyaana Ashtapadi, since it
is here that Raadhika comes to Krishna and Krishna accepts her and makes
her happy. To indicate the reunion, this is called Kalyaana
Philosophical Improt of
Our scriptures declare
that for every Manthra/Sloka/Song, there is an inner import, which should
be taken up as the guide by evey Jeeva. Our seers have all given the
Brahma Thathwaas in the form of prayer songs,slokaas,Puraanaas,
scriptures, Srutis, Smritis and various bashyams for them. Everything
relates to the behaviour of human beings, their relations with nature and
God. They prescribe various methods to regain our lost status, i.e.
reunion with the Ultimate Truth. For instance, take tha Puranam:
Raamaayana. What is the moral we have to learn from there?
Let us consider
Krishnavathaaram. What is conveyed through Bhaagawatham &
We have learnt
the principles one should adopt in leading a Dharmic life. We are handed
over with the practices one should adopt in leading a Saahtwic life. We
are also taught that we have the right to work and the result is left to
the Super Power, which is already fixed according to the equations
pre-determined depending on the quality and characteristics of each
action. We call this as VIDHI.
Ashtapadi songs and slokaas,we have been shown practically

( 1) the value of relationships,

( 2) the falsehood of Ahamkaar and Mamaakar,

( 3) the existence of Truth in all forms,

( 4) Jeevaathma Paramaathma relationship,

( 5) God's Krupa towards Bhakthaas,

( 6) Secrets and purpose of Avathaars,

( 7) Bhaktha Lakshnam,

( 8) one-ness of all,

( 9) Principles of Bhakthi Maarga for salvation,

(10) Guru Sishya Bhaavam,

(11) Paraa Bhakthi,

(12) community living principles,

(13) strength of Unity,

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(14) value of collective prayer,

(15) limitations of wordly relationships,

(16) Godly principle etc. etc.

Instead of the
Sringaara Rasa in Ashtapadi, we must see Bhakthi Laya Bhava in this
Kaavyam. Raadhika representing all the Jeevaathmaas, Sri Krishna the
Paramaathma and Sakkhi the Guru. All of us (Jeevaas), having separated
from the Paramaathma, have come to this world of matter & got
ourselves entangled in Maaya (Ignorance) and forgot about our origin - the
Permanant Bliss form of ours, we must feel the pangs of separation as
suffered by Raadhika,we must follow the advice of our Gurus, we must curse
our status, we must cast away our Ego, we must crave for the presence of
Lord and ultimately reunite with the Paramaathma, we should realise the
beauty and power of Nature, we must enjoy the happiness within and not
outside,we must enact the Leelaas of God like Jayadeva and Padmaavathi did
and follow the principles therein, we must be aware of the Bhagawath Krupa
when it flows and keep ourselves fit for receiving it. All the Puraanaas
and Kaavyaas are trying to project the way of life one should lead in
order to get re-united with the God.
The essence,
thus, of this Amara Kaavyam is the sorry state of affairs of Jeevathmaas
and the way to re-unite with Paramaathma through Prema Bhakthi & total
surrender to Lord as adviced by Sakkhi (who has played the role of a
Guru). The best bhaava we should possess while doing Ashtapadi is "NAAYIKA
NAAYAKA BHAAVAM" or "GOPIKAA BHAAVAM",which depicts the Bhakthi Layam.We
have stated earlier that Raadhakalyaanam took place in Brahma Muhoortham.
As per the Vendanthic explanations, the best time for Dhyaanam is Brahma
Muhoortham. Thus, Raadhakalyaanam is the Union of Jeevaathma with
Paramaathma & the best time for it, is the Brahma Muhoortham.
Before a
Kalyaana Paddhathi, it is customary to sing all the Ashtapadis,which
itself form a special Paddhathi called "POORNA ASHTAPADI PADDHATHI".The
paddhathi starts with RaamaNaama, Hari Naaraayana Song,Thodaya Mangalam,
Guru Keerthanams and then the three Poorva Slokams of Ashtapadi:
Narrow> "Yadgopi
Vadanendu Mandanam Aboodu ....."
Narrow> "Raadha
Manorama Ramaavara Raasaleela ..."

Narrow> "Sree
Gopaala Vilaasini Valayasadrathnaadi..."
The third one is
normally sung in Poorvi Kalyaani Raagam as it is followed by a song color=blue> "PADMAAVATHI RAMANAM - JAYA DEVA KAVI RAAJA"
in the same raagam, giving short history of Jayadeva and Padmavathi &
about the origin of this Kaavyam. Then the slokams:-
Narrow> "Meghair
Medhuram Ambaram",

Charitha Chithritha Chittha Sadma",

Harismarane Sarasam Mana:" etc.
are sung. Now
starts first Ashtapadi with poorva sloka
"Vaachaallava Yathyumaapathidhara:"
. color=brown> Both Poorva Slokaas and Uthara Slokaas of each Ashtapasi must
be sung. Naamavali may be taken up, time permitting, after each Ashtapasi
(after Uthara sloka) or atleast at the end of each
After the 24th
Ashtapadi, Paartha Saarathi Geetham "Bhajatha Prema
Krupaanidhi Maadhavam" in Thodi to be sung after the
slokam: "Nakkhaniyamida Khandoon". This
is followed by:-
Narrow> Kalyaana
Tharangam:"Aaalokaye Rukmini Kalyaana Gopaalam"

Paddhathi Kramam

time added, be also may Paddhathi
Dhyaana>If Poorna Ashtapadi is done
before Kalyaanam, then you can stop at any end of Sargam, as per time
permitting and continue the balance during Paddhathi Bhajan, Dolothsavam
and 22nd, 23rd and 24th on Kalyaanam day.In such case, the Parthasaarathi
Geetham and Kalyaana Tharangam should be sung after the Maangalya
Dhaaranam, but before Anjaneya. After Poorna Ashtapathi, it is customary
to recite the first starting sloka at the end, to indicate that this is a
continuous process and does not end with this programme.
time added, be also may Paddhathi
Dhyaana>There is a practice of offering
different palahaarams (total 24) at the end of each Ashtapadi. This is
possible only for some people. However, two Kela Fruits and Betal Leaves
& nut Nivedhyam is a must after each Ashtapadi.
permitting. time added, be also may Paddhathi
As the entire
Ashtapadi has to be sung without leaving any sloka or song, I have not
given the Attavanai for this as given for other paddhathis. However, if
anyone wants the Sankrit version of the Ashtapathi songs, slokaas etc.,
they may contact me with a request and I shall forward by email the same
along with the necessary fonts to read them.




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