The previous Sarga described the city of Ayōdhyā. This Sarga describes the virtuous people of the city and the riches, abundance and order they were enjoying.

What leads to riches and abundance ? Rāmāyaṇa's answer is very simple. People committed to just and equitable society automatically enjoy riches and abundance. When the environment is just, stable and offers a level playing field, the society automatically flourishes.

Rāmāyaṇa is a story of people and leaders whose primary commitment is to maintain Dharma, a just and stable environment. It is the story of Rāma who set an example, by making enormous personal sacrifices when called for, in the course of protecting Dharma and adhering to truth.

To honor a word given long long ago by someone to someone in the family, he sacrificed all the power, riches and comfort.

In deference to an under current of public sentiment against having a queen who was under the protection of a sex-thirsty enemy for almost a year, he sacrificed his marriage.
1.6.1-4
தஸ்யாம் புர்யாமயோத்யாயாம் வேதவித்ஸர்வஸங்க்ரஹ: ।
தீர்கதர்ஸீ மஹாதேஜா: பௌரஜாநபதப்ரிய: ॥
இக்ஷ்வாகூணாமதிரதோ யஜ்வா தர்மரதோ வஸீ ।
மஹர்ஷிகல்போ ராஜர்ஷிஸ்த்ரிஷு லோகேஷு விஸ்ருத: ॥
பலவாந்நிஹதாமித்ரோ மித்ரவாந் விஜிதேந்த்ரிய: ।
தநைஸ்ச ஸங்க்ரஹைஸ்சாந்யை: ஸக்ரவைஸ்ரவணோபம: ॥
யதா மநுர்மஹாதேஜா லோகஸ்ய பரிரக்ஷிதா ।
ததா தஸரதோ ராஜா வஸந் ஜகதபாலயத் ॥
tasyāṃ puryāmayōdhyāyāṃ vēdavitsarvasaṅgrahaḥ ।
dīrghadarṡī mahātējāḥ paurajānapadapriyaḥ ॥
ikṣvākūṇāmatirathō yajvā dharmaratō vaṡī ।
maharṣikalpō rājarṣistriṣu lōkēṣu viṡrutaḥ ॥
balavānnihatāmitrō mitravān vijitēndriyaḥ ।
dhanaiṡca saṅgrahaiṡcānyaiḥ ṡakravaiṡravaṇōpamaḥ ॥
yathā manurmahātējā lōkasya parirakṣitā ।
tathā daṡarathō rājā vasan jagadapālayat ॥
King Daṡaratha, the celebrated warrior of Ikshwāku dynasty
who is well reputed in all the three worlds,
ably ruled the earth from that great city of Ayōdhyā
following the tradition of the brilliant and great Manu,
who protected the entire world.

Daṡaratha was brilliant and knowledgeable in all Vēdas.
He was completely in control of all sections of people.
He always had his eye on the long term aspects.
He was liked by the denizens of both the cities and rural areas.
He had performed many Yaj˝as.
He had acute interest in the nuances of Dharma.
He had complete control of his senses.
He had many friends who are aligned with him.
He had the strength to destroy his foes.
He had money, possessions and other riches
comparable to those of Ṡakra and Vaiṡravaṇa
He is renowned in all the three worlds
as a Rājarshi comparable to Maharshis.
Ṡakra is another name for Indra.
Vaiṡravaṇa is another name for Kubēra.

Ṛshi is a visionary and an architect. In this Ṡlōka Daṡaratha is referred to as Rājarshi, a composite word of Rāja (King) and Ṛshi (Architect). He is a visionary king.
1.6.5
தேந ஸத்யாபிஸந்தேந த்ரிவர்கமநுதிஷ்டதா ।
பாலிதா ஸா புரீ ஸ்ரேஷ்டா இந்த்ரேணேவாமராவதீ ॥
tēna satyābhisandhēna trivargamanutiṣṭhatā ।
pālitā sā purī ṡrēṣṭhā indrēṇēvāmarāvatī ॥
That great city was governed by Daṡaratha,
who had always stood firmly by his word and
invested equally in realizing all the three Vargas,
as well as Amarāvati was governed by Indra.
Three Vargas: Dharma, Artha, Kāma.

Rāmāyaṇa's focus is on Dharma, Artha and Kama (the fourth being Mōksha). This is asserted many a time, as you have already seen in the previous Sargas.
1.6.6
தஸ்மிந் புரவரே ஹ்ருஷ்டா தர்மாத்மாநோ பஹுஸ்ருதா: ।
நராஸ்துஷ்டா தநை: ஸ்வை: ஸ்வைரலுப்தா: ஸத்யவாதிந: ॥
tasmin puravarē hṛṣtā dharmātmānō bahuṡrutāḥ ।
narāstuṣtā dhanaiḥ svaiḥ svairalubdhāḥ satyavādinaḥ ॥
The denizens of that great city are well read, happy and
contended with their respective riches.
They were firmly standing by the side of Satya and Dharma.
Satya is a well known Sanskrit word.
Hence we would use it as is.
1.6.7
நால்பஸந்நிசய: கஸ்சிதாஸீத்தஸ்மிந் புரோத்தமே ।
குடும்பீ யோ ஹ்யஸித்தார்தோऽகவாஸ்வதநதாந்யவாந் ॥
nālpasannicayaḥ kaṡcidāsīttasmin purōttamē ।
kutumbī yō hyasiddhārthō'gavāṡvadhanadhānyavān ॥
Not even a single household can be found in that city
that is not contended or not having enough of
cows, horses, food grains or money.
1.6.8
காமீ வா ந கதர்யோ வா ந்ருஸம்ஸ: புருஷ: க்வசித் ।
த்ரஷ்டும் ஸக்யமயோத்யாயாம் நாவித்வாந்ந ச நாஸ்திக: ॥
kāmī vā na kadaryō vā nṛṡaṃsaḥ puruṣaḥ kvacit ।
draṣtuṃ ṡakyamayōdhyāyāṃ nāvidvānna ca nāstikaḥ ॥
It is difficult to find any one in Ayōdhyā
who is rude or Nāstika or sexually perverted or menacing
or exploiting or causing distress to own kith and kin.
The word Nāstika has multiple connotations.
It could mean someone not accepting the authority of Vēdas
or not accepting the invisible universal forces.
1.6.9
ஸர்வே நராஸ்ச நார்யஸ்ச தர்மஸீலா: ஸுஸம்யதா: ।
உதிதா: ஸீலவ்ருத்தாப்யாம் மஹர்ஷய இவாமலா: ॥
sarvē narāṡca nāryaṡca dharmaṡīlāḥ susaṃyatāḥ ।
uditāḥ ṡīlavṛttābhyāṃ maharṣaya ivāmalāḥ ॥
Every man and woman is prospering.
Everyone conducted themselves fully in tune with Dharma
Their minds are fully in their control and
are as clean as that of Maharshis.

Having complete control of mind is extolled all through Rāmāyaṇa and is a common theme in all Indic literature.

This simply means exercising good judgment and being discreet at all times and avoiding knee-jerk and ill-considered reactions.
1.6.10
நாகுண்டலீ நாமகுடீ நாஸ்ரக்வீ நால்பபோகவாந் ।
நாம்ருஷ்டோ நாநுலிப்தாங்கோ நாஸுகந்தஸ்ச வித்யதே ॥
nākuṇḍalī nāmakutī nāsragvī nālpabhōgavān ।
nāmṛṣtō nānuliptāṅgō nāsugandhaṡca vidyatē ॥
None can be found in Ayōdhyā
who falls short in enjoying the fanciful luxuries.
Everyone had oil baths regularly and
decorated themselves with perfumes, creams, lotions,
and ornaments on their ears and head.
1.6.11
நாம்ருஷ்டபோஜீ நாதாதா நாப்யநங்கதநிஷ்கத்ருக் ।
நாஹஸ்தாபரணோ வாபி த்ருஸ்யதே நாப்யநாத்மவாந் ॥
nāmṛṣtabhōjī nādātā nāpyanaṅgadaniṣkadhṛk ।
nāhastābharaṇō vāpi dṛṡyatē nāpyanātmavān ॥
None can be found over there,
who is not having enough food to eat,
who is not fully aware of oneself,
who is not having enough decorations on hands, arms and neck
and who is not generous.

The too many double negatives as used in the Ṡlōka doesn't flow well in English prose. But they read very poetic in Sanskrit.
1.6.12
நாநாஹிதாக்நிர்நாயஜ்வா ந க்ஷுத்ரோ வா ந தஸ்கர: ।
கஸ்சிதாஸீதயோத்யாயாம் ந ச நிர்வ்ருத்தஸங்கர: ॥
nānāhitāgnirnāyajvā na kṣudrō vā na taskaraḥ ।
kaṡcidāsīdayōdhyāyāṃ na ca nirvṛttasaṅkaraḥ ॥
No one there is wretched and mean or a thief,
nor trespassed the line of probity
nor had not done Yaj˝as and daily fire rituals.
1.6.13
ஸ்வகர்மநிரதா நித்யம் ப்ராஹ்மணா விஜிதேந்த்ரியா: ।
தாநாத்யயநஸீலாஸ்ச ஸம்யதாஸ்ச ப்ரதிக்ரஹே ॥
svakarmaniratā nityaṃ brāhmaṇā vijitēndriyāḥ ।
dānādhyayanaṡīlāṡca saṃyatāṡca pratigrahē ॥
The Brāhmaṇas had full mastery over their senses.
They were pursuing their activities with full zeal.
Being generous and being studious was in their very nature.
They were very restrained in accepting gifts.
1.6.14
ந நாஸ்திகோ நாந்ருதகோ ந கஸ்சிதபஹுஸ்ருத: ।
நாஸூயகோ ந வாஸக்தோ நாவித்வாந் வித்யதே ததா ॥
na nāstikō nānṛtakō na kaṡcidabahuṡrutaḥ ।
nāsūyakō na vāṡaktō nāvidvān vidyatē tadā ॥
There is no one, who is dishonest
or finds faults with everything for no reason
or doesn't believe in Providence
or inherently incapable,
or not well read in multiples of texts.
1.6.15
நாஷடங்கவிதத்ராஸீந்நாவ்ரதோ நாஸஹஸ்ரத: ।
ந தீந: க்ஷிப்தசித்தோ வா வ்யதிதோ வாபி கஸ்சந ॥
nāṣaḍaṅgavidatrāsīnnāvratō nāsahasradaḥ ।
na dīnaḥ kṣiptacittō vā vyathitō vāpi kaṡcana ॥
There is no one, who doesn't know the six Vēdāngas
or doesn't perform the customary Vratas
or has not been charitable.
There was no one there who felt helpless
or had undergone hardships or with disturbed mind.
Vratas are rituals performed over the many parts of the year
based on celestial events, cycles of nature and for many other purposes.
1.6.16
கஸ்சிந்நரோ வா நாரீ வா நாஸ்ரீமாந்நாப்யரூபவாந் ।
த்ரஷ்டும் ஸக்யமயோத்யாயாம் நாபி ராஜந்யபக்திமாந் ॥
kaṡcinnarō vā nārī vā nāṡrīmānnāpyarūpavān ।
draṣtuṃ ṡakyamayōdhyāyāṃ nāpi rājanyabhaktimān ॥
No man or woman can be found in Ayōdhyā
who doesn't trust in the king
or who is not handsome or beautiful
or who is not endowed with riches and possessions.
1.6.17-18
வர்ணேஷ்வக்ர்யசதுர்தேஷு தேவதாதிதிபூஜகா: ।
க்ருதஜ்ஞாஸ்ச வதாந்யாஸ்ச ஸூரா விக்ரமஸம்யுதா: ॥
தீர்காயுஷோ நரா: ஸர்வே தர்மம் ஸத்யம் ச ஸம்ஸ்ரிதா: ।
ஸஹிதா: புத்ரபௌத்ரைஸ்ச நித்யம் ஸ்த்ரீபி: புரோத்தமே ॥
varṇēṣvagryacaturthēṣu dēvatātithipūjakāḥ ।
kṛtaj˝āṡca vadānyāṡca ṡūrā vikramasaṃyutāḥ ॥
dīrghāyuṣō narāḥ sarvē dharmaṃ satyaṃ ca saṃṡritāḥ ।
sahitāḥ putrapautraiṡca nityaṃ strībhiḥ purōttamē ॥
Members of all the four Varnas worshipped the
gods and honored guests.
They were grateful, generous, accomplished and valiant.
They were steadfast in their adherence
to Dharma and in upholding the truth.
All of them were blessed with long lives along with
children, grand children and great women.
1.6.19
க்ஷத்ரம் ப்ரஹ்மமுகம் சாஸீத்வைஸ்யா: க்ஷத்ரமநுவ்ரதா: ।
ஸூத்ரா: ஸ்வதர்மநிரதாஸ்த்ரீந்வர்ணாநுபசாரிண: ॥
kṣatraṃ brahmamukhaṃ cāsīdvaiṡyāḥ kṣatramanuvratāḥ ।
ṡūdrāḥ svadharmaniratāstrīnvarṇānupacāriṇaḥ ॥
Kshatriyas were following Brāhmaṇas.
Vaiṡyas were following Kshatriyas.
Sūdras were pursuing their own activities
and also helping the other three.



The system of Varnas is foundational in Indic civilization. It is a social system, with no parallel anywhere in the world. It gives the simple formula for success of a society and well being of everyone.

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Rulers (Kshatriyas) should follow thinkers, scientists and philosophers (Brāhmaṇas), but not subdue them. (Think of politicians telling scientist what to do!) Businesses (Vaiṡyas) should operate within the governance framework set by Rulers, but not subvert it. (Think of business people dictating law makers what laws to make!) Workers (Sūdras) should enable all those three functions.

The Varna system is a more intricate topic than it appears. The four Varnas are not unique to Indic Civilization. They are there in every society and in every part of the world without exception. Scientists, Politicians, Business People and common folk, are not specific to India. Indic Civilization formally recognized the four types of people and provided the governance structure for their interactions.

In the absence of such system, no one is responsible for anything and everyone is driven by selfish ends, without concern for the overall welfare of the society and the result is 'dog eat dog' world, which we see today.

Modern India is a communal society, which is far different from the Varna system described here. Every community today, is set, to fight for its own good, without regard to the good of overall society.





1.6.20
ஸா தேநேக்ஷ்வாகுநாதேந புரீ ஸுபரிரக்ஷிதா ।
யதா புரஸ்தாந்மநுநா மாநவேந்த்ரேண தீமதா ॥
sā tēnēkṣvākunāthēna purī suparirakṣitā ।
yathā purastānmanunā mānavēndrēṇa dhīmatā ॥
Thus that city is governed and protected well by
the descendent of Ikshwāku, just as it was done by the
highly intelligent and capable Manu, the lord of people.
1.6.21
யோதாநாமக்நிகல்பாநாம் பேஸலாநாமமர்ஷிணாம் ।
ஸம்பூர்ணா க்ருதவித்யாநாம் குஹா கேஸரிணாமிவ ॥
yōdhānāmagnikalpānāṃ pēṡalānāmamarṣiṇām ।
sampūrṇā kṛtavidyānāṃ guhā kēsariṇāmiva ॥
Ayōdhyā resembled a cave full of lions,
replete with well trained, highly skilled and
proud warriors that are as powerful and fierce as fire.
1.6.22
காம்போஜவிஷயே ஜாதைர்பாஹ்லீகைஸ்ச ஹயோத்தமை: ।
வநாயுஜைர்நதீஜைஸ்ச பூர்ணா ஹரிஹயோத்தமை: ॥
kāmbhōjaviṣayē jātairbāhlīkaiṡca hayōttamaiḥ ।
vanāyujairnadījaiṡca pūrṇā harihayōttamaiḥ ॥
Ayōdhyā is resplendent with horses comparable
to the legendary horse of Indra
bred in various countries
like Kāmbhoja, Bāhlika, Vanāyu and Sindhu.
1.6.23-24
விந்த்யபர்வதஜைர்மத்தை: பூர்ணா ஹைமவதைரபி ।
மதாந்விதைரதிபலைர்மாதங்கை: பர்வதோபமை: ॥
ஐராவதகுலீநைஸ்ச மஹாபத்மகுலைஸ்ததா ।
அஞ்ஜநாதபி நிஷ்பந்நைர்வாமநாதபி ச த்விபை: ॥
vindhyaparvatajairmattaiḥ pūrṇā haimavatairapi ।
madānvitairatibalairmātaṅgaiḥ parvatōpamaiḥ ॥
airāvatakulīnaiṡca mahāpadmakulaistathā ।
a˝janādapi niṣpannairvāmanādapi ca dvipaiḥ ॥
It is resplendent with
muscular and brawny elephants of enormous strength
with rut flowing from their temples
and looking like mountains
bred in the mountainous ranges of Himalayas and Vindhyas
from the blood of celestial elephants like
Airāvata, Mahāpadma, Anjana and Vāmana.
The word 'blood' here is used figuratively to mean 'lineage'.
1.6.25
பத்ரைர்மந்த்ரைர்ம்ருகைஸ்சைவ பத்ரமந்த்ரம்ருகைஸ்ததா ।
பத்ரமந்த்ரைர்பத்ரம்ருகைர்ம்ருகமந்த்ரைஸ்ச ஸா புரீ ।
நித்யமத்தை: ஸதா பூர்ணா நாகைரசலஸந்நிபை: ॥
bhadrairmandrairmṛgaiṡcaiva bhadramandramṛgaistathā ।
bhadramandrairbhadramṛgairmṛgamandraiṡca sā purī ।
nityamattaiḥ sadā pūrṇā nāgairacalasannibhaiḥ ॥
Ayōdhyāĺs inebriated elephants that resembled mountains,
are a mix of three types: Bhadra, Mandra and Mṛga.
Some are Bhadra type, some are Mandra type
and others are Mṛga type.
Some are a mix Bhadra and Mandra types.
Some are a mix Bhadra and Mṛga types.
Some are a mix Mṛga and Mandra types.
And others are a mix of all three types.
1.6.26
ஸா யோஜநே ச த்வே பூய: ஸத்யநாமா ப்ரகாஸதே ।
யஸ்யாம் தஸரதோ ராஜா வஸந் ஜகதபாலயத் ॥
sā yōjanē ca dvē bhūyaḥ satyanāmā prakāṡatē ।
yasyāṃ daṡarathō rājā vasan jagadapālayat ॥
That city of Ayōdhyā,
the abode of the ruler of the kingdom, Daṡaratha,
true to its name, is impregnable
even within two Yōjanas of its perimeter.
The literal meaning of Ayōdhyā is ' impregnable'.
1.6.27
தாம் புரீம் ஸ மஹாதேஜா ராஜா தஸரதோ மஹாந் ।
ஸஸாஸ ஸமிதாமித்ரோ நக்ஷத்ராணீவ சந்த்ரமா: ॥
tāṃ purīṃ sa mahātējā rājā daṡarathō mahān ।
ṡaṡāsa ṡamitāmitrō nakṣatrāṇīva candramāḥ ॥
Having subdued all his foes, and shining like moon among stars,
the brilliant King Daṡaratha ruled over that city.
1.6.28
தாம் ஸத்யநாமாம் த்ருடதோரணார்கலாம் க்ருஹைர்விசித்ரைருபஸோபிதாம் ஸிவாம் ।
புரீமயோத்யாம் ந்ருஸஹஸ்ரஸங்குலாம் ஸஸாஸ வை ஸக்ரஸமோ மஹீபதி: ॥
tāṃ satyanāmāṃ dṛḍhatōraṇārgalāṃ gṛhairvicitrairupaṡōbhitāṃ ṡivām ।
purīmayōdhyāṃ nṛsahasrasaṅkulāṃ ṡaṡāsa vai ṡakrasamō mahīpatiḥ ॥
The king, comparable to Ṡakra, ruled over
the auspicious city of Ayōdhyā
resplendent with an assortment of dwellings
housing thousands of people
fortified by hefty gates with strong locks, true to its name.

இத்யார்ஷே ஸ்ரீமத்ராமாயணே வால்மீகீயே ஆதிகாவ்யே
ஸ்ரீமத்பாலகாண்டே ஷஷ்ட: ஸர்க: ॥
ityārṣē ṡrīmadrāmāyaṇē vālmīkīyē ādikāvyē
ṡrīmadbālakāṇḍē ṣaṣṭhaḥ sargaḥ ॥
Thus concludes the sixth Sarga
in Bāla Kāṇḍa of the glorious Rāmāyaṇa,
the first ever poem of humankind,
composed by Vālmeeki.

We completed reading 263 Ṡlōkas out of ~24,000 Ṡlōkas of Vālmeeki Rāmāyaṇa.