Ayodhya Kaanda - Sarga 36



Ayodhya Kaanda - Sarga 36
In this Sarga, Daṡaratha tells Sumantra to send four divisions of army, the best armaments, monies from his treasury and grain from his granaries along with Rāma, so that he can live comfortably in the Vana, performing Yajñas and giving generous gifts to everyone.


Kaikēyee shudders at this directive of the king and tells him that he just cannot do that. She demands that the king abandon Rāma just as Sagara, an ancestor of Daṡaratha, abandoned his son Asamanja. Everyone is shocked and shamed at that terrible parallel.


Then, Siddhartha, a senior minister of King Daṡaratha, retorts saying that Asamanja was abandoned by the king because his people demanded him to do so, as Asamanja was throwing their children in the river and having sadistic enjoyment. Siddhartha tells that Rāma has done nothing wrong to deserve such a fate.
2.36.1 ததஸ்ஸுமந்த்ரமைக்ஷ்வாக: பீடிதோऽத்ர ப்ரதிஜ்ஞயா ।
ஸபாஷ்பமதிநிஸ்ஸ்வஸ்ய ஜகாதேதம் புந: புந: ॥
tatassumantramaikṣvākaḥ pīḍitō'tra pratijñayā ।
sabāṣpamatiniṡṡvaṡya jagādēdaṃ punaḥ punaḥ ॥
Thereupon, the king of the Ikshwāku dynasty,
hurt by the tightening grip of the promise he himself had made,
heaving steamy sighs excessively, repeatedly told Sumantra:
2.36.2 ஸூத! ரத்நஸுஸம்பூர்ணா சதுர்விதபலா சமூ: ।
ராகவஸ்யாநுயாத்ரார்தம் க்ஷிப்ரம் ப்ரதிவிதீயதாம் ॥
sūta! ratnasusampūrṇā caturvidhabalā camūḥ ।
rāghavasyānuyātrārthaṃ kṣipraṃ pratividhīyatām ॥
O charioteer! let an army with the four divisions,
provided with all necessities including precious stones,
be made ready to accompany Rāghava.
2.36.3 ரூபாஜீவாஸ்ச வாதிந்யோ வணிஜஸ்ச மஹாதநா: ।
ஸோபயந்து குமாரஸ்ய வாஹிநீம் ஸுப்ரஸாரிதா: ॥
rūpājīvāṡca vādinyō vaṇijaṡca mahādhanāḥ ।
ṡōbhayantu kumārasya vāhinīṃ suprasāritāḥ ॥
May courtesans skilled in varied musical instruments
and wealthy businessmen,
mingling among the army lines,
make it look splendid!
2.38.4 யே சைநமுபஜீவந்தி ரமதே யைஸ்ச வீர்யத: ।
தேஷாம் பஹுவிதம் தத்த்வா தாநப்யத்ர நியோஜய ॥
yē cainamupajīvanti ramatē yaiṡca vīryataḥ ।
tēṣāṃ bahuvidhaṃ dattvā tānapyatra niyōjaya ॥
Let everyone who depends on him for their livelihood,
and everyone with whom he enjoys martial sports,
be endowed with good amounts of money
and be made part of his entourage.
2.36.5 ஆயுதாநி ச முக்யாநி நாகராஸ்ஸகடாநி ச ।
அநுகச்சந்து காகுத்ஸ்தம் வ்யாதாஸ்சாரண்ய கோசரா: ॥
āyudhāni ca mukhyāni nāgarāṡṡakaṭāni ca ।
anugacchantu kākutsthaṃ vyādhāṡcāraṇya gōcarāḥ ॥
Let all the important armaments,
the citizens, the vehicles and
the tribal people that dwell in the forests
follow the prince of Kākutstha lineage!
2.36.6 நிக்நந் ம்ருகாந் குஞ்ஜராம்ஸ்ச பிபம்ஸ்சாரண்யகம் மது ।
நதீஸ்ச விவிதா: பஸ்யந்ந ராஜ்யஸ்ய ஸ்மரிஷ்யதி ॥
nighnan mṛgān kuñjarāṃṡca pibaṃṡcāraṇyakaṃ madhu ।
nadīṡca vividhāḥ paṡyanna rājyasya smariṣyati ॥
Hunting deer and elephants,
enjoying the wild honey and the sight of rivers
he would not have to look back on the kingdom.
2.36.7 தாந்யகோஸஸ்ச ய: கஸ்சித்தநகோஸஸ்ச மாமக: ।
தௌ ராமமநுகச்சேதாம் வஸந்தம் நிர்ஜநே வநே ॥
dhānyakōṡaṡca yaḥ kaṡciddhanakōṡaṡca māmakaḥ ।
tau rāmamanugacchētāṃ vasantaṃ nirjanē vanē ॥
May all the monies in my treasury and
all the grain in my granaries
go along with him, as he goes
to live in the uninhabited Vana!
2.36.8 யஜந் புண்யேஷு தேஸேஷு விஸ்ருஜம்ஸ்சாப்ததக்ஷிணா: ।
ருஷிபிஸ்ச ஸமாகம்ய ப்ரவத்ஸ்யதி ஸுகம் வநே ॥
yajan puṇyēṣu dēṡēṣu visṛjaṃṡcāptadakṣiṇāḥ ।
ṛṣibhiṡca samāgamya pravatsyati sukhaṃ vanē ॥
May he live happily and comfortably
in the company of Ṛshis in the Vana,
performing Yajñas in all the auspicious places
and generously dispensing appropriate gifts. What does a good Kshatriya do? The first thing that comes to our mind is ‘fighting’. But fighting is not the end in itself. It is rather to defend and expand one’s kingdom. But even that is not an end in itself. It is to provide good governance to people.


If the Kshatriya happens not to be the head of a kingdom, what would he do? This Ṡlōkas provides the answer. A good Kshatriya would still seek luxuries and comfort, but more than that, he would also perform Yajñas and generously dispense gifts.
2.36.9 பரதஸ்ச மஹாபாஹுரயோத்யாம் பாலயிஷ்யதி ।
ஸர்வகாமை: ஸஹ ஸ்ரீமாந் ராம: ஸம்ஸாத்யதாமிதி ॥
bharataṡca mahābāhurayōdhyāṃ pālayiṣyati ।
sarvakāmaiḥ saha ṡrīmān rāmaḥ saṃsādhyatāmiti ॥
May the mighty armed Bharata rule Ayōdhyā.
May every luxury that the lustrous Rāma has mind for,
be sent with him.
2.36.10 ஏவம் ப்ருவதி காகுத்ஸ்தே கைகேய்யா பய மாகதம் ।
முகம் சாப்யகமச்சோஷம் ஸ்வரஸ்சாபி ந்யருத்யத ॥
ēvaṃ bruvati kākutsthē kaikēyyā bhaya māgatam ।
mukhaṃ cāpyagamacchōṣaṃ svaraṡcāpi nyarudhyata ॥
Kaikēyee shuddered at those words
of the king of Kākutstha lineage
Her face became dry and her voice was stuck in its tracks.
2.36.11 ஸா விஷண்ணா ச ஸந்த்ரஸ்தா முகேந பரிஸுஷ்யதா ।
ராஜாநமேவாபிமுகீ கைகேயீ வாக்யமப்ரவீத் ॥
sā viṣaṇṇā ca santrastā mukhēna pariṡuṣyatā ।
rājānamēvābhimukhī kaikēyī vākyamabravīt ॥
Sad and frightened, with face drying up,
Kaikēyee turned to the king and said:
2.36.12 ராஜ்யம் கதஜநம் ஸாதோ! பீதமண்டாம் ஸுராமிவ ।
நிராஸ்வாத்யதமம் ஸூந்யம் பரதோ நாபிபத்ஸ்யதே ॥
rājyaṃ gatajanaṃ sādhō! pītamaṇḍāṃ surāmiva ।
nirāsvādyatamaṃ ṡūnyaṃ bharatō nābhipatsyatē ॥
O my good man! Bharata will not take
a kingdom that is vacated by people,
which is like wine that has lost its essence,
with nothing worth left to enjoy!
2.36.13 கைகேய்யாம் முக்தலஜ்ஜாயாம் வதந்த்யாமதிதாருணாம் ।
ராஜா தஸரதோ வாக்யமுவாசாயதலோசநாம் ॥
kaikēyyāṃ muktalajjāyāṃ vadantyāmatidāruṇām ।
rājā daṡarathō vākyamuvācāyatalōcanām ॥
As the shameless Kaikēyee
uttered those utterly terrible words
Daṡaratha interrupted that wide-eyed woman and said:
2.36.14 வஹந்தம் கிம் துதஸி மாம் நியுஜ்ய துரி மாऽஹிதே ।
அநார்யே ! க்ருத்யமாரப்தம் கிம் ந பூர்வமுபாருத: ॥
vahantaṃ kiṃ tudasi māṃ niyujya dhuri mā'hitē ।
anāryē ! kṛtyamārabdhaṃ kiṃ na pūrvamupārudhaḥ ॥
O my foe! Why are you poking me further,
While I am already pulling the yoke you had tied me to?
O ignoble woman, why didn’t you stop
me from what I did, right upfront!
2.36.15 தஸ்யைதத்க்ரோதஸம்யுக்தமுக்தம் ஸ்ருத்வா வராங்கநா ।
கைகேயீ த்விகுணம் க்ருத்தா ராஜாநமிதமப்ரவீத் ॥
tasyaitatkrōdhasaṃyuktamuktaṃ ṡrutvā varāṅganā ।
kaikēyī dviguṇaṃ kruddhā rājānamidamabravīt ॥
Hearing those angry words,
Kaikēyee, the woman of import,
became doubly angry and said to the king:
2.36.16 தவைவ வம்ஸே ஸகரோ ஜ்யேஷ்டம் புத்ரமுபாருதத் ।
அஸமஞ்ஜ இதி க்யாதம் ததாயம் கந்துமர்ஹதி ॥
tavaiva vaṃṡē sagarō jyēṣṭhaṃ putramupārudhat ।
asamañja iti khyātaṃ tathāyaṃ gantumarhati ॥
In your very dynasty,
there is a well known example
of Sagara stopping his eldest son
Asamanja (from becoming the king).
He (Rāma) should also leave in a similar manner. This Sarga shows how inept the lady is in putting forward her case. She brings up an example that is terrible that does nothing but hurt her case, and expose her stupidity to all the people that are present.


After all, Kaikēyee is not speaking out of wisdom or strategy. She is just acting under the spell of Manthara. She doesn’t have a cogent case to begin with. She only knows one thing, that she can hold Daṡaratha to his word.


She is strictly following the script given by Manthara, which is very simple. “Do not compromise on any of your demands, under any circumstance!”


If she was any clever, she would have thought of other possible options, such as asking for half of the kingdom or a major portion of the kingdom for Bharata, and would have extracted a promise that Rāma would never attack the kingdom of Bharata, similar to the one the parents of Satyavati extracted from Bheeshma in Mahābhārata.
2.36.17 ஏவமுக்தோ திகித்யேவ ராஜா தஸரதோऽப்ரவீத் ।
வ்ரீடிதஸ்ச ஜநஸ்ஸர்வஸ்ஸா ச தம் நாவபுத்யத ॥
ēvamuktō dhigityēva rājā daṡarathō'bravīt ।
vrīḍitaṡca janassarvassā ca taṃ nāvabudhyata ॥
Hearing those words, the king
Daṡaratha could say no more than ‘Dhik!‘
Everyone felt shocked and shamed.
But she was unable to even sense it.
You say ‘Dhik’ to someone or something that is shameful and disgusting!
2.36.18 தத்ர வ்ருத்தோ மஹாமாத்ரஸ்ஸித்தார்தோ நாம நாமத: ।
ஸுசிர்பஹுமதோ ராஜ்ஞ: கைகேயீமிதமப்ரவீத் ॥
tatra vṛddhō mahāmātrassiddhārthō nāma nāmataḥ ।
ṡucirbahumatō rājñaḥ kaikēyīmidamabravīt ॥
Then, an elderly minister by name Siddhartha,
of clean character, who was well regarded by the king,
said these words Kaikēyee:
2.36.19 அஸமஞ்ஜோ க்ருஹீத்வா து க்ரீடத: பதி பாலகாந் ।
ஸரய்வா: ப்ரக்ஷிபந்நப்ஸு ரமதே தேந துர்மதி: ॥
asamañjō gṛhītvā tu krīḍataḥ pathi bālakān ।
sarayvāḥ prakṣipannapsu ramatē tēna durmatiḥ ॥
Asamanja was a maniac! He used to amuse himself
seizing children that were playing on the streets
and throwing them in the waters of Sarayu river.
2.36.20 தம் த்ருஷ்ட்வா நாகராஸ்ஸர்வே க்ருத்தா ராஜாநமப்ருவந் ।
அஸமஞ்ஜம் வ்ருணீஷ்வைகமஸ்மாந்வா ராஷ்ட்ரவர்தந ॥
taṃ dṛṣṭvā nāgarāssarvē kṛddhā rājānamabruvan ।
asamañjaṃ vṛṇīṣvaikamasmānvā rāṣṭravardhana ॥
Thereupon, the people of the city
became angry and said to the king:
“O developer of the kingdom!
You must now choose between one and many,
between Asamanja and all of us!” People in the days of Rāmāyaṇa seem to have enjoyed much more autonomy and power than anything that people in any modern democracy experience.


The people of the kingdom of Sagara threaten the king that he has no option but to choose between his maniac son and them.


It is amazing that they have the guts, spirit, unanimity and wherewithal to desert a kingdom and go elsewhere.


In the end, it is the people’s opinion that prevails, in the times of Rāmāyaṇa.


Only Dharma is counted to be above the opinion of people. In going to the Vana, Rāma clearly puts Dharma above public sentiment.
2.36.21 தாநுவாச ததோ ராஜா கிந்நிமித்தமிதம் பயம் ।
தாஸ்சாபி ராஜ்ஞா ஸம்ப்ருஷ்டா வாக்யம் ப்ரக்ருதயோऽப்ருவந் ॥
tānuvāca tatō rājā kinnimittamidaṃ bhayam ।
tāṡcāpi rājñā sampṛṣṭā vākyaṃ prakṛtayō'bruvan ॥
Then the king said to them:
“What is the reason for this fear?”
The people, asked thus by the king, responded saying:
2.36.22 க்ரீடக்ரீடதஸ்த்வேஷ ந: புத்ராந் பாலாநுத்ப்ராந்தசேதந: ।
ஸரய்வாம் ப்ரக்ஷிபந்மௌர்க்யாததுலாம் ப்ரீதிமஸ்நுதே ॥
krīḍakrīḍatastvēṣa naḥ putrān bālānudbhrāntacētanaḥ ।
sarayvāṃ prakṣipanmaurkhyādatulāṃ prītimaṡnutē ॥
He has gone insane.
He is throwing our children who play
in the river Sarayu and derives
immense sadistic pleasure out of it.
2.36.23 ஸ தாஸாம் வசநம் ஸ்ருத்வா ப்ரக்ருதீநாம் நராதிப: ।
தம் தத்யாஜாஹிதம் புத்ரம் தேஷாம் ப்ரியசிகீர்ஷயா ॥
sa tāsāṃ vacanaṃ ṡrutvā prakṛtīnāṃ narādhipaḥ ।
taṃ tatyājāhitaṃ putraṃ tēṣāṃ priyacikīrṣayā ॥
Hearing the words of those people,
that lord of the peoples,
in his interest in pleasing them,
abandoned his son.
2.36.24 தம் யாநம் ஸீக்ரமாரோப்ய ஸபார்யம் ஸபரிச்சதம் ।
யாவஜ்ஜீவம் விவாஸ்யோऽயமிதி ஸ்வாநந்வஸாத்பிதா ॥
taṃ yānaṃ ṡīghramārōpya sabhāryaṃ saparicchadam ।
yāvajjīvaṃ vivāsyō'yamiti svānanvaṡātpitā ॥
Then he ordered his men
to put him, along with his wife
and with nothing more than the clothes he was wearing,
in a carriage, and send him in banishment!
2.36.25 ஸ பாலபிடகம் க்ருஹ்ய கிரிதுர்காண்யலோடயத் ।
திஸஸ்ஸர்வாஸ்த்வநுசரந் ஸ யதா பாபகர்மக்ருத் ॥
sa phālapiṭakaṃ gṛhya giridurgāṇyalōḍayat ।
diṡassarvāstvanucaran sa yathā pāpakarmakṛt ॥
Then that sinner had to go
with a basket and crowbar
digging the caves and sides
of mountains in every direction.
2.36.26 இத்யேநமத்யஜத்ராஜா ஸகரோ வை ஸுதார்மிக: ।
ராம: கிமகரோத்பாபம் யேநைவமுபருத்யதே ॥
ityēnamatyajadrājā sagarō vai sudhārmikaḥ ।
rāmaḥ kimakarōtpāpaṃ yēnaivamuparudhyatē ॥
That is why King Sagara,
the great Dhārmika, abandoned him.
What wrong has Rāma done
to be banished like that?
2.36.27 ந ஹி கஞ்சந பஸ்யாமோ ராகவஸ்யாகுணம் வயம் ।
துர்லபோ ஹ்யஸ்ய நிரயஸ்ஸஸாங்கஸ்யேவ கல்மஷம் ॥
na hi kañcana paṡyāmō rāghavasyāguṇaṃ vayam ।
durlabhō hyasya nirayaṡṡaṡāṅkasyēva kalmaṣam ॥
We can not find even a single fault in Rāghava.
It is as difficult to find a flaw in him,
as it is to find a smudge on the moon.
2.36.28 அதவா தேவி! தோஷம் த்வம் கஞ்சித்பஸ்யஸி ராகவே ।
தமத்ய ப்ரூஹி தத்வேந ததா ராமோ விவாஸ்யதாம் ॥
athavā dēvi! dōṣaṃ tvaṃ kañcitpaṡyasi rāghavē ।
tamadya brūhi tatvēna tadā rāmō vivāsyatām ॥
But, O lady, if you see
even a single fault in Rāghava,
may it be told right now and
may Rāma be sent in exile right away!
2.36.29 அதுஷ்டஸ்ய ஹி ஸம்த்யாக: ஸத்பதே நிரதஸ்ய ச ।
நிர்தஹேதபி ஸக்ரஸ்ய த்யுதிம் தர்மநிரோதநாத் ॥
aduṣṭasya hi saṃtyāgaḥ satpathē niratasya ca ।
nirdahēdapi ṡakrasya dyutiṃ dharmanirōdhanāt ॥
Banishing someone who is at no fault
and who always treads on the right path,
would be nothing but subverting Dharma,
which would reduce even the splendor of Sakra to ashes!
2.36.30 ததலம் தேவி ராமஸ்ய ஸ்ரியா விஹதயா த்வயா ।
லோகதோऽபி ஹி தே ரக்ஷ்ய: பரிவாத: ஸுபாநநே ॥
tadalaṃ dēvi rāmasya ṡriyā vihatayā tvayā ।
lōkatō'pi hi tē rakṣyaḥ parivādaḥ ṡubhānanē ॥
Hence enough of this hurting of
the prosperity of Rāma by you!
Moreover, O fair lady! It should
be in your best interest not to
earn the disrepute of the people.
2.36.31 ஸ்ருத்வா து ஸித்தார்தவசோ ராஜா ஸ்ராந்ததரஸ்வந: ।
ஸோகோபஹதயா வாசா கைகேயீமிதமப்ரவீத் ॥
ṡrutvā tu siddhārthavacō rājā ṡrāntatarasvanaḥ ।
ṡōkōpahatayā vācā kaikēyīmidamabravīt ॥
Hearing those words of Siddhartha,
the king, exhausted by grief
and in a very feeble voice,
said these words to Kaikēyee:
2.36.32 ஏதத்வசோ நேச்சஸி பாபவ்ருத்தே! ஹிதம் ந ஜாநாஸி மமாத்மநோ வா ।
ஆஸ்தாய மார்கம் க்ருபணம் குசேஷ்டா சேஷ்டா ஹி தே ஸாதுபதாதபேதா ॥
ētadvacō nēcchasi pāpavṛttē! hitaṃ na jānāsi mamātmanō vā ।
āsthāya mārgaṃ kṛpaṇaṃ kucēṣṭā cēṣṭā hi tē sādhupathādapētā ॥
O wicked one! You would not agree with this, would you?
You are not able to see what is good for me or for you!
You have taken up a wrong course that
is far away from anything acceptable!
2.36.33 அநுவ்ரஜிஷ்யாம்யஹமத்ய ராமம்
ராஜ்யம் பரித்யஜ்ய ஸுகம் தநம் ச ।
ஸஹைவ ராஜ்ஞா பரதேந ச த்வம்
யதாஸுகம் புங்க்ஷ்வ சிராய ராஜ்யம் ॥
anuvrajiṣyāmyahamadya rāmaṃ
rājyaṃ parityajya sukhaṃ dhanaṃ ca ।
sahaiva rājñā bharatēna ca tvaṃ
yathāsukhaṃ bhuṅkṣva cirāya rājyam ॥
I will give up this kingdom,
comforts and riches and will
accompany Rāma right now.
May you enjoy this kingdom comfortably
for a long time along with Bharata! The sentiment that Daṡaratha expresses here, “May you enjoy for long time with .. ” is a common expression in India. People use it every day, when they are forced to give up their case in a helpless manner.


We have seen the expression in Bāla Kāṇḍa (1.21.3) used by Viṡwāmitra, when Daṡaratha did not yield to his request to send Rāma with him.
இத்யார்ஷே ஸ்ரீமத்ராமாயணே வால்மீகீயே ஆதிகாவ்யே
அயோத்யாகாண்டே ஷட்த்ரிம்ஸஸ்ஸர்க: ॥
ityārṣē ṡrīmadrāmāyaṇē vālmīkīyē ādikāvyē
ayōdhyākāṇḍē ṣaṭtriṃṡassargaḥ ॥
Thus concludes the thirty sixth Sarga
in Ayōdhyā Kāṇḍa of the glorious Rāmāyaṇa,
the first ever poem of humankind,
composed by Vālmeeki.
You have completed reading 3784 Ṡlōkas out of ~24,000 Ṡlōkas of Vālmeeki Rāmāyaṇa.


Meaning, notes and commentary by: Krishna Sharma.

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